Parasmittina Osburn, 1952

Type species: Lepralia jeffreysi Norman, 1876

Synonyms Author Type Species
Alismittina Soule & Soule, 1964 Smittia californiensis Robertson, 1908

This genus includes the species:

  1. Parasmittina abrolhosensis
  2. Ramalho, Taylor. & Moraes, 2018 Recent West Pacific Brazil WoRMS 1299459
  3. Parasmittina acondylata
  4. Dick, Ngai & Doan, 2020 Recent South China Sea Vietnam WoRMS 1424310
  5. Parasmittina aculeata
  6. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west Solomon Is. WoRMS 470477
  7. Parasmittina acuta
  8. (Canu & Bassler, 1929) Recent West Pacific Philippines WoRMS 1035374
  9. Parasmittina alanbanneri
  10. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470430
  11. Parasmittina alaskensis
  12. Osburn, 1952 Recent Alaska WoRMS 470454
  13. Parasmittina alba
  14. Ramalho, Muricy & Taylor, 2011 Recent West Atlantic Brazil WoRMS 573180
  15. Parasmittina aleutensis
  16. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Alaska WoRMS 387446
  17. Parasmittina amazonensis
  18. Ramalho & Moraes, 2021 Recent West Atlantic Brazil WoRMS 1497610
  19. Parasmittina anderseni
  20. Cheetham & Sandberg, 1964 Holocene USA (Gulf of Mexico) WoRMS 422341
  21. Parasmittina aotea
  22. (Brown, 1952) Recent New Zealand WoRMS 470458
  23. Parasmittina areolata
  24. (Canu & Bassler, 1927) Recent Hawaii, Brazil, Belize, Mauritius(?) WoRMS 470410
  25. Parasmittina atypica
  26. (Powell, 1967) Recent New Zealand WoRMS 722987
  27. Parasmittina auris
  28. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2005 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat WoRMS 470478
  29. Parasmittina avicularissima
  30. Gontar, 1982 Recent North Pacific WoRMS 470458
  31. Parasmittina aviculifera
  32. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent California WoRMS 387447
  33. Phylactella aviculifera
    (Homonym)
  34. (d'Hondt, 1986) Recent New Caledonia WoRMS 1035376
  35. Parasmittina aviculoumbonata
  36. Kataoka, 1961 Neogene Pliocene-Pleistocene Japan WoRMS 1406219
  37. Parasmittina baccula
  38. Hayward & Winston, 2011 Recent Antarctic WoRMS 709373
  39. Parasmittina barbadensis
  40. Winston & Woollacott, 2009 Recent West Atlantic - Barbados WoRMS 534175
  41. Parasmittina betamorphaea
  42. Winston, 2005 Recent West Atlantic Caribbean WoRMS 422342
  43. Parasmittina bimucronata
  44. (Hincks, 1884) Recent Burma WoRMS 470459
  45. Parasmittina breli
  46. d'Hondt & Mascarell, 2010 Recent Marquesas Is. WoRMS 843203
  47. Parasmittina californica
  48. (Robertson, 1908) Recent California WoRMS 470461
  49. Parasmittina californiensis
  50. (Robertson, 1908) Recent USA California WoRMS 851529
  51. Parasmittina cheilodon
  52. (MacGillivray, 1869) Recent Southern Australia WoRMS 470426
  53. Parasmittina chikagawaensis
  54. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Pliocene-Pleistocene Japan WoRMS 1406220
  55. Parasmittina circinanata
  56. Liu, 2001 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 470465
  57. Parasmittina circularis
  58. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470431
  59. Parasmittina collifera
  60. (Robertson, 1908) Recent California WoRMS 868579
  61. Parasmittina collum
  62. (Canu & Bassler, 1920) Paleogene Eocene Priabonian USA Carolinas WoRMS 1412720
  63. Parasmittina contraria
  64. Seo, 1992 Recent Korea WoRMS 470446
  65. Parasmittina crosslandi
  66. (Hastings, 1930) Recent
    Neogene
    East Pacific
    Central America
    WoRMS 422343
  67. Parasmittina crosslandi serrata
  68. Madihavan Pillai, 1981 Recent Indian Ocean WoRMS 472721
  69. Parasmittina cryptoavicularia
  70. Baradari, Nasrolahi & Taylor, 2019 Recent Persian Gulf WoRMS 1354164
  71. Parasmittina delicatula
  72. (Busk, 1884) Recent Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia WoRMS 470398
  73. Parasmittina dentigera
  74. Harmer, 1957 Recent Indonesia WoRMS 470415
  75. Parasmittina dependeo
  76. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470474
  77. Parasmittina distincta
    Ramalho, Taylor. & Moraes, 2018 Recent West Pacific Brazil WoRMS 1299458
  78. Parasmittina dolabrata
  79. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Galapagos, E.Pacific WoRMS 470441
  80. Parasmittina dubitata
  81. Hayward, 1980 Recent South Atlantic WoRMS 470425
  82. Parasmittina echinata
  83. Canu & Bassler, 1928 Recent Gulf of Mexico WoRMS 422344
  84. Parasmittina egyptiaca
  85. (Waters, 1909) Recent Egypt WoRMS 470416
  86. Parasmittina emersoni
  87. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470434
  88. Parasmittina ensifera
  89. (Maplestone, 1909) Recent South Pacific - Gilbert Islands WoRMS 1035386
  90. Parasmittina erecta
  91. Gordon & d'Hondt, 1997 Recent Southwest Pacific WoRMS 470449
  92. Parasmittina exasperatrix
  93. d'Hondt, 1986 Recent New Caledonia WoRMS 470443
  94. Parasmittina exiguiuncinata
  95. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470470
  96. Parasmittina fistulata
  97. (Harmer 1957) Recent Indo-West Pacific, western Australia WoRMS 470399
  98. Parasmittina floridana
  99. Winston, 2005 Recent West Atlantic - Caribbean WoRMS 422345
  100. Parasmittina fraseri
  101. Osburn, 1952 Recent Mexico WoRMS 470455
  102. Parasmittina galerita
  103. Ryland & Hayward, 1992 Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470404
  104. Parasmittina geometrica
  105. (Kirkpatrick, 1890) Recent South China Sea WoRMS 1035389
  106. Parasmittina glabra
  107. Gordon & d'Hondt, 1997 Recent Southwest Pacific WoRMS 470447
  108. Parasmittina glomerata
  109. (Thornely, 1912) Recent Indian Ocean WoRMS 220637
  110. Parasmittina gujaratica
  111. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2005 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat WoRMS 470481
  112. Parasmittina hanzawae
  113. Kataoka, 1960 Recent Japan WoRMS 470452
  114. Parasmittina harudiensis
  115. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2005 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat WoRMS 470479
  116. Parasmittina hastingsae
  117. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii, Vanuatu, Indonesia, Australia WoRMS 470400
  118. Parasmittina ilioensis
  119. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470440
  120. Parasmittina inalienata
  121. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470476
  122. Parasmittina indiginella
  123. Winston, 2016 Recent Northwest Atlantic USA Florida WoRMS 868519
  124. Parasmittina japonica
  125. (Ortmann, 1890) Recent Japan WoRMS 1035391
  126. Parasmittina jeffreysi
  127. (Norman, 1876) Recent Arctic WoRMS 111544
  128. Parasmittina johni
  129. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2005 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat WoRMS 470480
  130. Parasmittina kauaiensis
  131. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470438
  132. Parasmittina labellum
  133. Canu & Bassler, 1928 Recent Gulf of Mexico WoRMS 470444
  134. Parasmittina latiavicularia
  135. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius, GBR WoRMS 470405
  136. Parasmittina lavela
  137. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Colombia WoRMS 387448
  138. Parasmittina leviavicularia
  139. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470436
  140. Parasmittina livingstonei
  141. (Powell, 1967) Recent New Zealand WoRMS 722988
  142. Parasmittina longirostrata
  143. Liu, 2001 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 470463
  144. Parasmittina loxa
  145. (Marcus, 1937) Recent Atlantic Ocean - St Helena WoRMS 1035392
  146. Parasmittina loxoides
  147. Winston, Vieira & Woollacott, 2014 Recent Southwest Atlantic Brazil WoRMS 827638
  148. Parasmittina macginitiei
  149. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Alaska WoRMS 387449
  150. Parasmittina macphersonae
  151. Powell, 1967 Recent Southern Australia WoRMS 470427
  152. Parasmittina margaritata
  153. Hayward, 1988 Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470419
  154. Parasmittina marsupialis
  155. (Busk, 1884) Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470435
  156. Parasmittina masudai
  157. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Miocene-Pliocene Japan WoRMS 1406221
  158. Parasmittina mauritiana
  159. Hayward, 1988 Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470420
  160. Parasmittina mexicana
  161. Pouyet & Herrera-Anduaga, 1986 Recent Mexico WoRMS 422346
  162. Parasmittina multiaviculata
  163. Souto, Ramalhosa & Canning-Clode, 2016 Recent East Atlantic Madeira WoRMS 888472
  164. Parasmittina munita
  165. (Hincks, 1884) Recent Australia WoRMS 422347
  166. Parasmittina murarmata
  167. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470421
  168. Parasmittina nasuta
  169. (Harmer, 1957) Recent Indo-Pacific Indonesia WoRMS 470412
  170. Parasmittina natalensis
  171. O'Donoghue, 1957 Recent Indian Ocean South Africa WoRMS 470453
  172. Parasmittina nitida
  173. (Verrill, 1875) Recent S. Atlantic WoRMS 422348
  174. Parasmittina novella
  175. Hayward & Cook, 1983 Recent South Africa WoRMS 470429
  176. Parasmittina obstructa
  177. (Waters, 1889) Recent Australia WoRMS 470460
  178. Parasmittina oculinae
  179. Winston, 2016 Recent Northwest Atlantic USA Florida WoRMS 868520
  180. Parasmittina okadai
  181. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Miocene Japan WoRMS 1406222
  182. Parasmittina onychorrhyncha
  183. Ryland & Hayward, 1992 Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470406
  184. Parasmittina ornata
  185. (Thornely, 1912) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470422
  186. Parasmittina ovilirata
  187. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470471
  188. Parasmittina papulata
  189. (Harmer, 1957) Recent Indonesia WoRMS 470414
  190. Parasmittina paradicei
  191. (Livingstone, 1926) Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470428
  192. Parasmittina parsevaliformis
  193. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470437
  194. Parasmittina parsevalii
  195. (Audouin, 1826) Recent Gulf of Suez WoRMS 111545
  196. Parasmittina parsloeparsloei
  197. Hayward & Parker, 1994 Recent southern Australia WoRMS 470401
  198. Parasmittina parvitatis
  199. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470475
  200. Parasmittina parviuncinata
  201. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470433
  202. Parasmittina pectinata
  203. Hayward & Parker, 1994 Recent southern Australia WoRMS 470402
  204. Parasmittina peristoaviculata
  205. Kataoka, 1961 Neogene Pliocene-Pleistocene Japan WoRMS 1406223
  206. Parasmittina pinctatae
  207. Liu, 2001 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 470468
  208. Parasmittina plana
  209. Kataoka, 1961 Neogene Pleistocene Japan WoRMS 1406224
  210. Parasmittina projecta
  211. (Okada & Mawatari, 1937) Recent Japan WoRMS 470457
  212. Parasmittina protecta
  213. (Thornely, 1905) Recent West Africa, Indian Ocean WoRMS 220639
  214. Parasmittina proximoproducta
  215. Moyano, 1983 Recent Chile WoRMS 470451
  216. Parasmittina pugetensis
  217. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent NW USA WoRMS 387450
  218. Parasmittina pyriformis
  219. Seo, 2002 Recent Northwest Pacific - Korea WoRMS 387451
  220. Parasmittina raigiformis
  221. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470439
  222. Parasmittina raigii
  223. (Audouin, 1826) Recent Gulf of Suez WoRMS 111546
  224. Parasmittina raigioidea
  225. Liu, 2001 Recent Northwest Pacific - China WoRMS 470467
  226. Parasmittina recidiva
  227. Hayward, 1988 Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470423
  228. Parasmittina regularis
  229. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent California WoRMS 387452
  230. Parasmittina rimula
  231. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470472
  232. Parasmittina rostriformis
  233. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470424
  234. Parasmittina rouvillei
  235. (Calvet, 1902) Recent Mediterranean WoRMS 221563
  236. Parasmittina saccoi
  237. (Canu, 1913) Neogene Miocene Burdigalian France WoRMS 1412721
  238. Parasmittina santacruzana
  239. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent California WoRMS 387453
  240. Parasmittina serrula
  241. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Pacific, Caribbean WoRMS 470407
  242. Parasmittina serruloides
  243. Harmelin, Bitar & Zibrowius, 2009 Recent Lebanon WoRMS 470483
  244. Parasmittina shibikawaensis
  245. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Pliocene Japan WoRMS 1406225
  246. Parasmittina simpulata
  247. Winston, Vieira & Woollacott, 2014 Recent Southwest Atlantic Brazil WoRMS 827639
  248. Parasmittina solenosmilioides
  249. Hayward & Parker, 1994 Recent Australia, Indo-west Pacific WoRMS 470403
  250. Parasmittina soulesi
  251. Scholz & Cusi, 1993 Recent Indo-Pacific WoRMS 932838
  252. Parasmittina spathulata
  253. (Smitt, 1873) Recent Hawai’i WoRMS 422349
  254. Parasmittina spiculata
  255. Gluhak, Lewis & Popijak, 2007 Recent Northwest Pacific - Taiwan WoRMS 472903
  256. Parasmittina spondylicola
  257. Harmelin, Bitar & Zibrowius, 2009 Recent Lebanon WoRMS 470484
  258. Parasmittina subtubulata
  259. (Harmer, 1957) Recent Indonesia WoRMS 470413
  260. Parasmittina talismani
  261. (Calvet, 1907) Recent Cape Verde WoRMS 470482
  262. Parasmittina tatianae
  263. Denisenko, 2015 Recent Arctic Chukotsk Sea WoRMS 884395
  264. Parasmittina telum
  265. (Canu & Bassler, 1920) Paleogene Oligocene Rupelian USA, Europe WoRMS 1412722
  266. Parasmittina triangularis
  267. (Mawatari, 1952) Recent Japan WoRMS 470456
  268. Parasmittina trianguliforma
  269. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Mexico WoRMS 470462
  270. Parasmittina trispinosa
  271. (Johnston, 1838) Recent Europe WoRMS 111547
  272. Parasmittina trispinosa aomoriensis
  273. Kataoka, 1957 Neogene Pliocene Japan WoRMS 1414956
  274. Parasmittina trispinosa granosa
  275. (Canu & Bassler, 1929) Recent Pacific west Philippines WoRMS 1035398
  276. Parasmittina trispinosa macroavicularia
  277. (Androsova, 1958) Recent North Pacific - Sakhalin WoRMS 472718
  278. Parasmittina trispinosa nanshaensis
  279. Lu, 1991 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 472720
  280. Parasmittina tropica
  281. (Waters, 1909) Recent Mauritius, W.Africa, Indonesia, Australia, Mediterranean WoRMS 111548
  282. Parasmittina trunculata
  283. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470473
  284. Parasmittina tubula
  285. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470409
  286. Parasmittina tubulata
  287. Osburn, 1952 Recent California, Mexico WoRMS 470445
  288. Parasmittina turbula
  289. Ryland & Hayward, 1992 Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470408
  290. Parasmittina uncinata
  291. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470432
  292. Parasmittina vacuramosa
  293. Lu, Nie & Zhong in Lu, 1991 Recent Indo-Pacific including Australia WoRMS 470469
  294. Parasmittina variabilis
  295. Liu, 2001 Recent Northwest Pacific - China WoRMS 470466
  296. Parasmittina winstonae
  297. Liu, 2001 Recent Northwest Pacific - China WoRMS 470464
Parasmittina alanbanneri Parasmittina areolata Parasmittina avicularissima Parasmittina circularis
Parasmittina alanbanneri
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina areolata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina avicularissima
(Thanks to Matt Dick)
Parasmittina circularis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina crosslandi Parasmittina delicatula Parasmittina dolabrata Parasmittina emersoni
Parasmittina crosslandi Parasmittina delicatula Parasmittina dolabrata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina emersoni
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina hastingsae Parasmittina ilioensis Parasmittina kauaiensis Parasmittina leviavicularia
Parasmittina hastingsae
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina ilioensis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina kauaiensis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina leviavicularia
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina marsupialis Parasmittina parsevaliformis Parasmittina parsloeparsloei Parasmittina parviuncinata
Parasmittina marsupialis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina parsevaliformis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina parsloeparsloei -
A colour photograph by
Karen Gowlett-Holmes
is available.
Parasmittina parviuncinata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina raigiformis Parasmittina serrula Parasmittina soulesi Parasmittina trianguliforma Parasmittina uncinata
Parasmittina raigiformis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina serrula
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina soulesi
(Thanks to Matt Dick)
Parasmittina trianguliforma
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina uncinata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)

This information is based upon various sources, but little personal knowledge. I am indebted to the late Alan Horowitz for his compilation, and to Dr. J. Pachut.
I would be grateful for corrections to, or critical reviews of this information. This is not a 'final' version (an impossible ideal), but a working document.

Parasmittina page at NMITA

Parasmittina trispinosa at Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland.

Parasmittina jeffreysi at Atlas of Arctic Bryozoa - Piotr Kuklinski.
Parasmittina trispinosa at Atlas of Arctic Bryozoa - Piotr Kuklinski.


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Edited by Phil Bock
Modified on 3/1/2017
Modified on 14/9/2017 (3 species added)
Modified on 29/9/2018 (2 species added)
Modified on 30/6/2019 (Added P.cryptoavicularia)
Modified on 8/3/2020 (Added P.acondylata)
Modified on 14/6/2020 (Added WoRMS links)
Modified on 19/8/2020 (Moved P.cautela, P.marginata to Smittoidea)
Modified on 29/3/2021 (Added P.amazonensis)
This URL is http://bryozoa.net/cheilostomata/smittinidae/parasmittina.html