Parasmittina Osburn, 1952

Type species: Lepralia jeffreysi Norman, 1876

Synonyms Author Type Species
Alismittina Soule & Soule, 1964 Smittia californiensis Robertson, 1908

This genus includes the species:

  1. Parasmittina abrolhosensis
  2. Ramalho, Taylor. & Moraes, 2018 Recent West Pacific Brazil WoRMS 1299459
  3. Parasmittina acondylata
  4. Dick, Ngai & Doan, 2020 Recent South China Sea Vietnam WoRMS 1424310
  5. Parasmittina aculeata
  6. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west Solomon Is. WoRMS 470477
  7. Parasmittina acuta
  8. (Canu & Bassler, 1929) Recent West Pacific Philippines WoRMS 1035374
  9. Parasmittina alanbanneri
  10. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470430
  11. Parasmittina alaskensis
  12. Osburn, 1952 Recent Alaska WoRMS 470454
  13. Parasmittina alba
  14. Ramalho, Muricy & Taylor, 2011 Recent West Atlantic Brazil WoRMS 573180
  15. Parasmittina aleutensis
  16. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Alaska WoRMS 387446
  17. Parasmittina alitis
  18. Winston & Jackson, 2021 Recent Caribbean Jamaica WoRMS 1516121
  19. Parasmittina amazonensis
  20. Ramalho & Moraes, 2021 Recent West Atlantic Brazil WoRMS 1497610
  21. Parasmittina anderseni
  22. Cheetham & Sandberg, 1964 Holocene USA (Gulf of Mexico) WoRMS 422341
  23. Parasmittina aotea
  24. (Brown, 1952) Recent New Zealand WoRMS 470458
  25. Parasmittina areolata
  26. (Canu & Bassler, 1927) Recent Hawaii, Brazil, Belize, Mauritius(?) WoRMS 470410
  27. Parasmittina atypica
  28. (Powell, 1967) Recent New Zealand WoRMS 722987
  29. Parasmittina auris
  30. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2005 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat WoRMS 470478
  31. Parasmittina avicularissima
  32. Gontar, 1982 Recent North Pacific WoRMS 470458
  33. Parasmittina aviculifera
  34. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent California WoRMS 387447
  35. Phylactella aviculifera
    (Homonym)
  36. (d'Hondt, 1986) Recent New Caledonia WoRMS 1035376
  37. Parasmittina aviculoumbonata
  38. Kataoka, 1961 Neogene Pliocene-Pleistocene Japan WoRMS 1406219
  39. Parasmittina baccula
  40. Hayward & Winston, 2011 Recent Antarctic WoRMS 709373
  41. Parasmittina barbadensis
  42. Winston & Woollacott, 2009 Recent West Atlantic - Barbados WoRMS 534175
  43. Parasmittina betamorphaea
  44. Winston, 2005 Recent West Atlantic Caribbean WoRMS 422342
  45. Parasmittina bimucronata
  46. (Hincks, 1884) Recent Burma WoRMS 470459
  47. Parasmittina breli
  48. d'Hondt & Mascarell, 2010 Recent Marquesas Is. WoRMS 843203
  49. Parasmittina californica
  50. (Robertson, 1908) Recent California WoRMS 470461
  51. Parasmittina californiensis
  52. (Robertson, 1908) Recent USA California WoRMS 851529
  53. Parasmittina cheilodon
  54. (MacGillivray, 1869) Recent Southern Australia WoRMS 470426
  55. Parasmittina chikagawaensis
  56. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Pliocene-Pleistocene Japan WoRMS 1406220
  57. Parasmittina circinanata
  58. Liu, 2001 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 470465
  59. Parasmittina circularis
  60. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470431
  61. Parasmittina collifera
  62. (Robertson, 1908) Recent California WoRMS 868579
  63. Parasmittina collum
  64. (Canu & Bassler, 1920) Paleogene Eocene Priabonian USA Carolinas WoRMS 1412720
  65. Parasmittina contraria
  66. Seo, 1992 Recent Korea WoRMS 470446
  67. Parasmittina crosslandi
  68. (Hastings, 1930) Recent
    Neogene
    East Pacific
    Central America
    WoRMS 422343
  69. Parasmittina crosslandi serrata
  70. Madihavan Pillai, 1981 Recent Indian Ocean WoRMS 472721
  71. Parasmittina cryptoavicularia
  72. Baradari, Nasrolahi & Taylor, 2019 Recent Persian Gulf WoRMS 1354164
  73. Parasmittina cyclops
  74. Winston & Jackson, 2021 Recent Caribbean Jamaica WoRMS 1516122
  75. Parasmittina delicatula
  76. (Busk, 1884) Recent Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia WoRMS 470398
  77. Parasmittina dentigera
  78. Harmer, 1957 Recent Indonesia WoRMS 470415
  79. Parasmittina dependeo
  80. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470474
  81. Parasmittina distincta
    Ramalho, Taylor. & Moraes, 2018 Recent West Pacific Brazil WoRMS 1299458
  82. Parasmittina dolabrata
  83. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Galapagos, E.Pacific WoRMS 470441
  84. Parasmittina dubitata
  85. Hayward, 1980 Recent South Atlantic WoRMS 470425
  86. Parasmittina eccentrica
  87. Winston & Jackson, 2021 Recent Caribbean Jamaica WoRMS 1516123
  88. Parasmittina echinata
  89. Canu & Bassler, 1928 Recent Gulf of Mexico WoRMS 422344
  90. Parasmittina egyptiaca
  91. (Waters, 1909) Recent Egypt WoRMS 470416
  92. Parasmittina emersoni
  93. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470434
  94. Parasmittina ensifera
  95. (Maplestone, 1909) Recent South Pacific - Gilbert Islands WoRMS 1035386
  96. Parasmittina erecta
  97. Gordon & d'Hondt, 1997 Recent Southwest Pacific WoRMS 470449
  98. Parasmittina exasperatrix
  99. d'Hondt, 1986 Recent New Caledonia WoRMS 470443
  100. Parasmittina exiguiuncinata
  101. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470470
  102. Parasmittina fistulata
  103. (Harmer 1957) Recent Indo-West Pacific, western Australia WoRMS 470399
  104. Parasmittina floridana
  105. Winston, 2005 Recent West Atlantic - Caribbean WoRMS 422345
  106. Parasmittina fraseri
  107. Osburn, 1952 Recent Mexico WoRMS 470455
  108. Parasmittina galerita
  109. Ryland & Hayward, 1992 Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470404
  110. Parasmittina geometrica
  111. (Kirkpatrick, 1890) Recent South China Sea WoRMS 1035389
  112. Parasmittina glabra
  113. Gordon & d'Hondt, 1997 Recent Southwest Pacific WoRMS 470447
  114. Parasmittina glomerata
  115. (Thornely, 1912) Recent Indian Ocean WoRMS 220637
  116. Parasmittina gujaratica
  117. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2005 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat WoRMS 470481
  118. Parasmittina hanzawae
  119. Kataoka, 1960 Recent Japan WoRMS 470452
  120. Parasmittina harudiensis
  121. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2005 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat WoRMS 470479
  122. Parasmittina hastingsae
  123. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii, Vanuatu, Indonesia, Australia WoRMS 470400
  124. Parasmittina ilioensis
  125. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470440
  126. Parasmittina inalienata
  127. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470476
  128. Parasmittina indiginella
  129. Winston, 2016 Recent Northwest Atlantic USA Florida WoRMS 868519
  130. Parasmittina japonica
  131. (Ortmann, 1890) Recent Japan WoRMS 1035391
  132. Parasmittina jeffreysi
  133. (Norman, 1876) Recent Arctic WoRMS 111544
  134. Parasmittina johni
  135. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2005 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat WoRMS 470480
  136. Parasmittina kauaiensis
  137. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470438
  138. Parasmittina labellum
  139. Canu & Bassler, 1928 Recent Gulf of Mexico WoRMS 470444
  140. Parasmittina latiavicularia
  141. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius, GBR WoRMS 470405
  142. Parasmittina lavela
  143. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Colombia WoRMS 387448
  144. Parasmittina leviavicularia
  145. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470436
  146. Parasmittina livingstonei
  147. (Powell, 1967) Recent New Zealand WoRMS 722988
  148. Parasmittina longirostrata
  149. Liu, 2001 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 470463
  150. Parasmittina loxa
  151. (Marcus, 1937) Recent Atlantic Ocean - St Helena WoRMS 1035392
  152. Parasmittina loxoides
  153. Winston, Vieira & Woollacott, 2014 Recent Southwest Atlantic Brazil WoRMS 827638
  154. Parasmittina luteoserrula
  155. Winston & Jackson, 2021 Recent Caribbean Jamaica WoRMS 1516152
  156. Parasmittina macginitiei
  157. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Alaska WoRMS 387449
  158. Parasmittina macphersonae
  159. Powell, 1967 Recent Southern Australia WoRMS 470427
  160. Parasmittina margaritata
  161. Hayward, 1988 Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470419
  162. Parasmittina marsupialis
  163. (Busk, 1884) Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470435
  164. Parasmittina masudai
  165. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Miocene-Pliocene Japan WoRMS 1406221
  166. Parasmittina mauritiana
  167. Hayward, 1988 Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470420
  168. Parasmittina mexicana
  169. Pouyet & Herrera-Anduaga, 1986 Recent Mexico WoRMS 422346
  170. Parasmittina multiaviculata
  171. Souto, Ramalhosa & Canning-Clode, 2016 Recent East Atlantic Madeira WoRMS 888472
  172. Parasmittina munita
  173. (Hincks, 1884) Recent Australia WoRMS 422347
  174. Parasmittina murarmata
  175. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470421
  176. Parasmittina nasuta
  177. (Harmer, 1957) Recent Indo-Pacific Indonesia WoRMS 470412
  178. Parasmittina natalensis
  179. O'Donoghue, 1957 Recent Indian Ocean South Africa WoRMS 470453
  180. Parasmittina nitida
  181. (Verrill, 1875) Recent S. Atlantic WoRMS 422348
  182. Parasmittina novella
  183. Hayward & Cook, 1983 Recent South Africa WoRMS 470429
  184. Parasmittina obstructa
  185. (Waters, 1889) Recent Australia WoRMS 470460
  186. Parasmittina oculinae
  187. Winston, 2016 Recent Northwest Atlantic USA Florida WoRMS 868520
  188. Parasmittina okadai
  189. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Miocene Japan WoRMS 1406222
  190. Parasmittina onychorrhyncha
  191. Ryland & Hayward, 1992 Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470406
  192. Parasmittina ornata
  193. (Thornely, 1912) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470422
  194. Parasmittina ovilirata
  195. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470471
  196. Parasmittina papulata
  197. (Harmer, 1957) Recent Indonesia WoRMS 470414
  198. Parasmittina paradicei
  199. (Livingstone, 1926) Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470428
  200. Parasmittina parsevaliformis
  201. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470437
  202. Parasmittina parsevalii
  203. (Audouin, 1826) Recent Gulf of Suez WoRMS 111545
  204. Parasmittina parsloeparsloei
  205. Hayward & Parker, 1994 Recent southern Australia WoRMS 470401
  206. Parasmittina parvitatis
  207. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470475
  208. Parasmittina parviuncinata
  209. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470433
  210. Parasmittina pectinata
  211. Hayward & Parker, 1994 Recent southern Australia WoRMS 470402
  212. Parasmittina peristoaviculata
  213. Kataoka, 1961 Neogene Pliocene-Pleistocene Japan WoRMS 1406223
  214. Parasmittina pinctatae
  215. Liu, 2001 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 470468
  216. Parasmittina plana
  217. Kataoka, 1961 Neogene Pleistocene Japan WoRMS 1406224
  218. Parasmittina projecta
  219. (Okada & Mawatari, 1937) Recent Japan WoRMS 470457
  220. Parasmittina protecta
  221. (Thornely, 1905) Recent West Africa, Indian Ocean WoRMS 220639
  222. Parasmittina proximoproducta
  223. Moyano, 1983 Recent Chile WoRMS 470451
  224. Parasmittina pugetensis
  225. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent NW USA WoRMS 387450
  226. Parasmittina pyriformis
  227. Seo, 2002 Recent Northwest Pacific - Korea WoRMS 387451
  228. Parasmittina raigiformis
  229. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470439
  230. Parasmittina raigii
  231. (Audouin, 1826) Recent Gulf of Suez WoRMS 111546
  232. Parasmittina raigioidea
  233. Liu, 2001 Recent Northwest Pacific - China WoRMS 470467
  234. Parasmittina recidiva
  235. Hayward, 1988 Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470423
  236. Parasmittina regularis
  237. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent California WoRMS 387452
  238. Parasmittina rimula
  239. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470472
  240. Parasmittina rostriformis
  241. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470424
  242. Parasmittina rouvillei
  243. (Calvet, 1902) Recent Mediterranean WoRMS 221563
  244. Parasmittina saccoi
  245. (Canu, 1913) Neogene Miocene Burdigalian France WoRMS 1412721
  246. Parasmittina santacruzana
  247. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent California WoRMS 387453
  248. Parasmittina serrula
  249. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Pacific, Caribbean WoRMS 470407
  250. Parasmittina serruloides
  251. Harmelin, Bitar & Zibrowius, 2009 Recent Lebanon WoRMS 470483
  252. Parasmittina shibikawaensis
  253. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Pliocene Japan WoRMS 1406225
  254. Parasmittina simpulata
  255. Winston, Vieira & Woollacott, 2014 Recent Southwest Atlantic Brazil WoRMS 827639
  256. Parasmittina solenosmilioides
  257. Hayward & Parker, 1994 Recent Australia, Indo-west Pacific WoRMS 470403
  258. Parasmittina soulesi
  259. Scholz & Cusi, 1993 Recent Indo-Pacific WoRMS 932838
  260. Parasmittina spathulata
  261. (Smitt, 1873) Recent Hawai’i WoRMS 422349
  262. Parasmittina spiculata
  263. Gluhak, Lewis & Popijak, 2007 Recent Northwest Pacific - Taiwan WoRMS 472903
  264. Parasmittina spondylicola
  265. Harmelin, Bitar & Zibrowius, 2009 Recent Lebanon WoRMS 470484
  266. Parasmittina subtubulata
  267. (Harmer, 1957) Recent Indonesia WoRMS 470413
  268. Parasmittina talismani
  269. (Calvet, 1907) Recent Cape Verde WoRMS 470482
  270. Parasmittina tatianae
  271. Denisenko, 2015 Recent Arctic Chukotsk Sea WoRMS 884395
  272. Parasmittina telum
  273. (Canu & Bassler, 1920) Paleogene Oligocene Rupelian USA, Europe WoRMS 1412722
  274. Parasmittina triangularis
  275. (Mawatari, 1952) Recent Japan WoRMS 470456
  276. Parasmittina trianguliforma
  277. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Mexico WoRMS 470462
  278. Parasmittina trispinosa
  279. (Johnston, 1838) Recent Europe WoRMS 111547
  280. Parasmittina trispinosa aomoriensis
  281. Kataoka, 1957 Neogene Pliocene Japan WoRMS 1414956
  282. Parasmittina trispinosa granosa
  283. (Canu & Bassler, 1929) Recent Pacific west Philippines WoRMS 1035398
  284. Parasmittina trispinosa macroavicularia
  285. (Androsova, 1958) Recent North Pacific - Sakhalin WoRMS 472718
  286. Parasmittina trispinosa nanshaensis
  287. Lu, 1991 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 472720
  288. Parasmittina tropica
  289. (Waters, 1909) Recent Mauritius, W.Africa, Indonesia, Australia, Mediterranean WoRMS 111548
  290. Parasmittina trunculata
  291. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470473
  292. Parasmittina tubula
  293. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470409
  294. Parasmittina tubulata
  295. Osburn, 1952 Recent California, Mexico WoRMS 470445
  296. Parasmittina turbula
  297. Ryland & Hayward, 1992 Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470408
  298. Parasmittina uncinata
  299. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470432
  300. Parasmittina vacuramosa
  301. Lu, Nie & Zhong in Lu, 1991 Recent Indo-Pacific including Australia WoRMS 470469
  302. Parasmittina variabilis
  303. Liu, 2001 Recent Northwest Pacific - China WoRMS 470466
  304. Parasmittina veniliae
  305. Winston & Jackson, 2021 Recent Caribbean Jamaica WoRMS 1516157
  306. Parasmittina winstonae
  307. Liu, 2001 Recent Northwest Pacific - China WoRMS 470464
Parasmittina alanbanneri Parasmittina areolata Parasmittina avicularissima Parasmittina circularis
Parasmittina alanbanneri
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina areolata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina avicularissima
(Thanks to Matt Dick)
Parasmittina circularis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina crosslandi Parasmittina delicatula Parasmittina dolabrata Parasmittina emersoni
Parasmittina crosslandi Parasmittina delicatula Parasmittina dolabrata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina emersoni
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina hastingsae Parasmittina ilioensis Parasmittina kauaiensis Parasmittina leviavicularia
Parasmittina hastingsae
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina ilioensis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina kauaiensis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina leviavicularia
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina marsupialis Parasmittina parsevaliformis Parasmittina parsloeparsloei Parasmittina parviuncinata
Parasmittina marsupialis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina parsevaliformis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina parsloeparsloei -
A colour photograph by
Karen Gowlett-Holmes
is available.
Parasmittina parviuncinata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina raigiformis Parasmittina serrula Parasmittina soulesi Parasmittina trianguliforma Parasmittina uncinata
Parasmittina raigiformis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina serrula
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina soulesi
(Thanks to Matt Dick)
Parasmittina trianguliforma
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina uncinata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)

This information is based upon various sources, but little personal knowledge. I am indebted to the late Alan Horowitz for his compilation, and to Dr. J. Pachut.
I would be grateful for corrections to, or critical reviews of this information. This is not a 'final' version (an impossible ideal), but a working document.

Parasmittina page at NMITA

Parasmittina trispinosa at Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland.

Parasmittina jeffreysi at Atlas of Arctic Bryozoa - Piotr Kuklinski.
Parasmittina trispinosa at Atlas of Arctic Bryozoa - Piotr Kuklinski.


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Edited by Phil Bock
Modified on 3/1/2017
Modified on 14/9/2017 (3 species added)
Modified on 29/9/2018 (2 species added)
Modified on 30/6/2019 (Added P.cryptoavicularia)
Modified on 8/3/2020 (Added P.acondylata)
Modified on 14/6/2020 (Added WoRMS links)
Modified on 19/8/2020 (Moved P.cautela, P.marginata to Smittoidea)
Modified on 29/3/2021 (Added P.amazonensis)
Modified on 20/6/2021 (Added 5 species)
This URL is http://bryozoa.net/cheilostomata/smittinidae/parasmittina.html