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new 2000 cover

International Bryozoology Association


J.R.P. Ross
P.J. Hayward
COUNCIL MEMBERS 1995-2001 P. Bock
J. Cancino
J.-L. d'Hondt
M. Key Jr.
J. Scholtz
T.S. Wood
COUNCIL MEMBERS 1998-2004 A. Herrera
P. Moissette
A. Ostrovsky
J.A. Todd
J.E. Winston
E. Wöss

Front Cover of Lepralia verrucosa is taken from Johnston G. 1847 A History of British Zoophytes. London, John Van Voorst, plate LVI, fig.3

ISSN 0108-0326

"BRYOZOA" is a newsletter published by the International Bryozoology Association



Preparations for the 12th IBA conference in Dublin are going well. If you wish to register for the meeting but have not done so then please contact Patrick Wyse Jackson as soon as possible. Abstracts of submitted papers and fees were due on the 1st March, 2001.

Several important issues are raised within this year's Newsletter and if you cannot attend the conference in Dublin but wish to contribute to the discussion, then please send your comments to the President or Secretary. Thank you to everyone who has contributed to this issue of the Newsletter and we look forward to seeing members in Dublin

Mary Spencer Jones & Ken McKinney


Solicitation of Suggestions to Nominating Committee

Ken McKinney

Nominations are solicited for IBA President, Secretary/Treasurer, and Council members for the election to be held at the end of the conference in Dublin, July 2001. A list of current Council members, with their dates of tenure, can be found in the inside front cover of this issue of the Newsletter. Please note that the Council should be composed of members who represent diverse research on bryozoans; who are active members of the Association, regardless of how long they have been members; and who are from anywhere in the world.

Mary Spencer Jones has served two terms as Secretary/Treasurer, which is the maximum tenure at present. The post of Secretary/Treasurer is extremely important in the Association, with duties that involve being a good steward of our small budget and the annual production of the Newsletter and bibliography. The role of Secretary/Treasurer therefore requires ready access to current literature and to bibliographic databases.

Please send suggested names to be considered by the nominating committee to Mary Spencer Jones, whose address can be found in the inside front cover of the Newsletter. (We previously have not solicited suggestions, but this was suggested by Mary and seems to be a good idea. A good response - that is, several well-considered suggestions but not the entire membership list - will likely result in continuation of this process.)



Simon H.H. Nielsen has finished studying bryozoans from the Danish Cretaceous, at the University of Copenhagen, Denmark and will now be based in Tromso, Norway.

Kamil Zágorsek has had a two year project in Vienna University with Prof. Vávra. He was studying Eocene Bryozoa from Austria, and plans to publish two papers concerning Eocene from Waschberg Zone (near Vienna) and Helvetikum (near Salzburg). The project will finish in 2001, and he believes he will be able to present some of the results at the IBA Conference in Dublin.

Francisco Kelmo (University of Plymouth) is working on South American reef systems.

Piotr Kuklinski has started working on his PhD looking at Arctic bryozoans. He will be working at the NHM for six weeks as from November, 2001.

It is with great regret that Prof. Alexander Aleekseev recently informed us that Dr. Tamara D. Troitskaya died more than 10 years ago.

Dr. Tyana Gruncharova has informed us that she has retired from the Institute of Zoology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and no longer actively works on bryozoans.

Andrei Grischenko is currently working with Shun Mawatari at Hokkaido University in Japan.

Aaron O'Dea will be a short-term scholar during February at the Appalachian State University in Boone under the wings of Steve Hageman.

Andrei Ostrovsky is currently work with Priska Schäfer at the Institut für Geowissenschaften, Universität Kiel.

The youngest bryozoologist?

Thirteen year old Alex Ayling recently received a Rockhound of the Year prize for a project he wrote entitled 'Brilliant Bryozoa'. The Rockhound prizes (see http://www.rockwatch.org.uk/rwchallenge.html) are awarded by Rockwatch, a British club for children interested in geology.

Roger Hughes would like to ask a favour of anyone who will be attending the IBA conference in Dublin. If you are able to collect colonies belonging to the genus Celleporella from your home locality, please would you fix them in alcohol (absolute is best, but 80% will do) and bring them along? Due acknowledgements will be given in their genetic survey of the genus. If you are not coming to Dublin, but still can obtain material, would you consider air mailing it to him (address below) he will gladly repay costs. Professor Roger N. Hughes, Brambell Building, School of Biological Sciences, University of Wales at Bangor, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW, United Kingdom

Tea Gluhak is trying to create a bryozoan library in Croatia for students and was wondering if members would send literature; especially ones concerning taxonomy. Tea will be attending the conference in Dublin, so maybe this would be a good time to pass on some papers! Reprints can also be sent to: Tea Gluhak, Jurkoviceva 10, 10000 Zagreb,Croatia


NHM Move

The Zoology Department at The Natural History Museum has started the MOVE into Phase 1 of the Darwin Centre. Please remember that staff time will be mainly involved with this and that the fluid preserved collections are not accessible at the moment. For anybody who wants to find out more information about the Darwin Centre, then this can be found at http://www.nhm.ac.uk/darwincentre/index.html. If you are intending to visit the museum before or after the IBA conference could you please let Mary Spencer Jones know well in advance.



Ken McKinney
President, 1998-2001

Two journals recently arrived on my desk with articles on issues that have been increasingly on my mind and that relate directly to the IBA. One was Science magazine dated 29 September 2000, containing a section on 'Bioinformatics for Biodiversity'2, 3, 7, 8, 11.

A focus of one article in Science is an effort - supported by the International Union of Biological Sciences (with which the IBA is affiliated) and other international scientific agencies - to create an Internet-based index of the world's known living species. A second article is centred on the Global Biodiversity Information Facility, which aims to ensure compatibility among independently developed databases that are now emerging from diverse biodiversity studies. Other articles describe ambitious efforts to make available inventories of the estimated 3 billion Holocene and fossil specimens in the world's natural history museums.

Obviously, once all these data are available for electronic sorting, very sophisticated analyses of distributions, associations, variations in species richness, changes in taxonomic diversity and geographic shifts through ecologic and evolutionary ('deep') time, and other interesting phenomena can be assessed. I have contentedly worked with less expansive databases and have instigated some fairly ambitious interpretations, while acknowledging the incompleteness of the databases available. (The assessment, actually more of a hope, is that inaccuracies are more-or-less randomly distributed and generate statistical noise through which a strong biological signal can still emerge.) Therefore, I share much of the optimism that important breakthroughs will emerge as the databases are more extensively linked and intelligent questions are posed that require manipulation of the information contained in them.

But there is an overwhelmingly important caveat. As noted in the introduction11 to the series of articles in Science, 'These Web resources will be of greatest use if the species included are correctly identified' (Science 289: 2305). I am a mediocre taxonomist, but I have spent a fair part of my research career visiting the major museums of the world for periods of up to a year at a time, pouring over Paleozoic through Holocene bryozoan collections. It is clear to me that a staggeringly large proportion of specimens are misidentified, most often at the species level but also at higher taxonomic levels. The situation is much better at museums where bryozoologists work, but even there the number of previously named specimens is so large that the one or two specialists haven't the time to check and update all taxonomic assignments.

For bryozoans, and presumably for all other organisms as well, databases that incorporate so many errors can be used to address adequately some interesting biological or evolutionary questions, but probably the most interesting questions that require the most detailed and precise occurrence data cannot be addressed or, more likely, might be addressed but yield erroneous conclusions (deserving the old adage, 'Garbage in, garbage out').

The other journal issue was Geotimes, dated October 2000, devoted in large part to 'Paleontologists in Academia and Industry' 1, 4, 9. Articles detailed the decline of employment of palaeontologists in the oil industry (down by 90% since 1985), and the contemporaneous decrease in proportion of palaeontologists in Canadian and U.S. PhD-granting geoscience departments (14.2% in 1980 but 6.4% in 1999, although the total number was up by 52.5% as size of geoscience departments has increased greatly). The absolute growth in palaeontologists in North American academia has been in interpretive fields, while the number of taxonomists has declined.

Thinking of the IBA in the context of the topics of the two journal issues summarised above, we appear to be a microcosm that reflects current trends in biology (including palaeontology). There have been many exciting biological and evolutionary concepts that IBA members have addressed during the past couple of decades, as seen clearly in each of the proceedings volumes and also in the most influential biological and interdisciplinary journals. But I fear that we, like biology in general, are abandoning the 'old-fashioned' essence of what allows us to discriminate the types of organisms on which we work: ALPHA TAXONOMY.

As indicated by Salvador Reguant10 in a very interesting article summarising the history of IBA conferences (and that should be read by every IBA member), our society has remained essentially the same size for the past two decades. With a stable number of members, and with a higher proportion of us doing research on a huge diversity of biological and evolutionary questions, we are seeing a slow corrosion in the number of biologists and palaeontologists whose main or secondary interests are the accurate discrimination and description of species. The paper by Horowitz and Pachut6 in the last IBA conference volume documents that bryozoan taxonomy has been declining for several decades. In fact, during the 1960s, almost ten times as many new taxa of Palaeozoic bryozoans were created as were projected for the 1990s.

I do not bring this issue of disappearing alpha taxonomy of bryozoans as a topic of despair, but as an area in which we have growth potential. During the past decade, I have collaborated with two first-rate taxonomists in our society. Clearly, we still have the expertise among our membership to train new generations of scientists who are committed to developing new information on the diversity of bryozoans that exist and that have existed, not just trusting that counting labels in museum drawers tells us all we need to know. In fact, one of our members, Judy Winston, has recently published a book12 that should stand for many years as a 'Bible' of taxonomy: Describing Species. It is very well written, complete, and useful for student and practicing biologists and palaeontologists. In addition, two of our members, Alan Cheetham and Jeremy Jackson, have collaborated to demonstrate in a series of papers that careful morphological analysis produces parallel results with genetic differentiation of cheilostome species, yielding three important insights: 1) a large proportion of species in even well studied genera masquerade under one or two species names [editorial gloss: pointing out the need for much more taxonomic work before 'Bioinformatics for Biodiversity' can match reality], 2) palaeontologists can have confidence that with careful morphological examination they can discriminate species that are real, and 3) the punctuated evolutionary pattern of species of the cheilostome Metrarabdotos still stands as a deep-time challenge to evolutionary biologists working with living organisms to understand why stasis prevails.

In summary, while bryozoans are exciting animals for important, diverse biological questions, it is imperative that more alpha taxonomy be done. The superior alpha taxonomists among us need to be augmented by new generations. Institutions in which additional taxonomists should be employed need somehow to be persuaded that biodiversity studies are valueless without ever-increasing numbers of competent taxonomists. That's no easy task, because taxonomy isn't in itself high-profile science, and it doesn't generate huge grant revenues. But without it, a vast number of important questions in biology can't be answered accurately.

Finally, the work of professional taxonomists can be extended greatly by vigorous amateurs. I don't recall ever before agreeing with the conservative American politician Newt Gingrich, but in an essay5 in which he correctly exhorts the fuller integration of amateur scientists, he wrote, 'It is important to remember that Darwin the amateur beetle collector nurtured Darwin the evolutionary theorist'. Britain has a long tradition of amateur naturalists, and right up to the present British amateur bryozoologists continue to make valuable contributions. Those of us in the rest of the world should do more to encourage competent amateurs and in some cases collaborate with them. We need more people looking for bryozoans and accurately reporting their distributions.

1. Ausich, W.I. 2000. Bones in the Ivory Tower. Geotimes 45(10):18-21.

2. Bisby, F.A. The quiet revolution: biodiversity informatics and the internet. Science 289:2309-2312.

3. Edwards, J.L., Lane, M.A. & Nielsen, E.S. 2000. Interoperability of biodiversity databases: biodiversity information on every desktop. Science 289:2312-2314.

4. Farley, M.B. & Armentrout, J.M. 2000. Fossils in the oil patch. Geotimes 45(10):14-17.

5. Gingrich, N. 2000. An opportunities-based science budget. Science 290:1303.

6. Horowitz, A.S. & Pachut, J.E. 2000. The fossil record of bryozoan species diversity. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference: 245-248.

7. Kaiser, J. 2000. Fossil databases move to the Web. Science 289:2307.

8. Pennisi, E. 2000. Taxonomic revival. Science 289:2306-2308.

9. Pojeta, J. Jr. 2000. The more eyes the better: fossils and amateurs. Geotimes 45 (10):5.

10. Reguant, S. 1999. Thirty one years (1968-1998) of bryozoology: the I.B.A. international conferences. Memorias de la Real Academia de Ciencias y Artes de Barcelona 58:141-153.

11. Sugden, A. & Pennisi, E. 2000. Diversity digitized. Science 289:2305.

12. Winston, J.E. 1999. Describing species. Columbia University Press, New York.


Proposed New Constitution

Members will find below the proposed new constitution for the IBA. Changes are denoted in capitals. This document will be discussed at the conference in Dublin. If you cannot attend the meeting and wish to raise any points, then please contact Ken McKinney or Mary Spencer Jones before July, 2001. This document can also be found at the IBA website:

Article I. Name

Section 1. The name of this organisation shall be the International Bryozoology Association.

Article II. Objectives

Section  1.  The objectives of the International Bryozoology Association are to encourage research on Bryozoa and stimulate others to participate and cooperate through informal meetings and correspondence; to provide a forum for exchange of ideas; to establish a means and an opportunity for personal contact and interaction in aiming for better mutual understanding; to serve as a liaison among bryozoologists; and to introduce new students to the workers in this field.

Article III. Membership and Affiliation

Section  1.  Members.  Any individual who supports the objectives of the International Bryozoology Association and is willing to contribute to the achievement of those objectives is qualified for membership. Members shall be eligible to hold elective positions in the Association and shall have the right:

(a) To vote for the President, Secretary-Treasurer, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FACILITATOR, and regional representative on the Advisory Council; to nominate additional candidates for those positions.

(b) To vote on the recall of elective officers.

(c) To vote on amendments to the Constitution and to propose amendments to the Constitution and Bylaws.

Section  2.  The membership consists of all members on the Secretary-Treasurer's roll at time of adoption of this Constitution. Qualified persons become members upon application to the Secretary-Treasurer. CONTINUATION OF INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP IS CONTINGENT UPON TIMELY PAYMENT OF ASSESSED DUES.

Section  3.  Affiliations. The International Bryozoology Association may affiliate with other scientific associations upon approval of the Advisory Council. Suggestions for such affiliations may be made by any member to the Advisory Council.

Article IV. Officers

Section 1. The officers shall be the President, Secretary-Treasurer AND THE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FACILITATOR.

Section 2. Duties:

(a) The President shall preside at the business meetings; plan the triennial CONFERENCE IN CONSULTATION WITH THE CONFERENCE HOST, including arranging the paper sessions and technical programme; chair the Advisory Council; and represent the Association on appropriate occasions and such other duties as may be associated with this office.

(b) The Secretary-Treasurer shall MAINTAIN an accurate membership roll. A copy of this roll shall be supplied to each member ANNUALLY. The Secretary-Treasurer shall also supply to each member AN ANNUAL NEWSLETTER IN WHICH FOLLOWING THE TRIENNIAL CONFERENCE THERE SHALL BE a copy of the minutes of the business meetings and a report of the conference, maintain the official files of the Association, collect THE prescribed dues and disperse funds for Association business, and such other duties as may be assigned by the President.


Section  3.  At the triennial business session at the International Conference, the officers shall be elected by the members present from a list of candidates presented by the Committee on Nominations. Additional nominations may be made by members present and/or by letter from members absent. The term of office shall be three years for the President and six years for the Secretary-Treasurer AND THE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FACILITATOR. THE SECRETARY-TREASURER AND THE CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FACILITATOR MAY STAND FOR RE-ELECTION.


Article V. Advisory Council

Section  1.  Duties.  The Advisory Council shall advise the President on matters he brings before it, for example, conference site selection. It shall also serve IN WHOLE OR IN PART as the Committee on Nominations, act in the absence of the President to conduct the Conference, and elect a new President and/or Secretary-Treasurer if these officers resign or cannot serve.

Section 2. Membership. The Advisory Council shall provide balanced representation among regions and consist of at least 10 members, in addition to the President, Secretary-Treasurer, CONFERENCE PROCEEDINGS FACILITATOR, Past President, PRESIDENT-ELECT and past Conference Host. The term of office shall be 6 years, with half of the membership elected each triennium.

Article VI. Conference Host

Section 1. The Conference Host shall be the member who will be responsible for the local arrangements for the triennial conference at the host institution. He will co-ordinate the use of physical facilities, including conference meeting rooms, dormitory and dining accommodation, and the field trips and social programme, with the programme being arranged by the President IN CONSULTATION WITH THE CONFERENCE HOST.

Section 2. Whenever possible, the Conference Host will be responsible FOR EDITING THE PROCEEDINGS VOLUME RESULTING FROM the Conference.

Article VII. Code of Ethics

Section  1.  In order to protect individual rights and to promote discussion it shall be an established requirement of each Conference that no information presented is to be used later in formal publication or formal presentation without acknowledgement of the individual making the contribution.

Article VIII. Amendments

Section  1. Amendments to this Constitution may be proposed by any member. Proposed amendments must be submitted at any time prior to 24 hours before the business meeting in writing to the President and the Secretary-Treasurer.

Section  2. Voting on amendments shall take place at a business session of the Conference or by mail, at the discretion of the President. If presented at a meeting, a proposed amendment shall require for its adoption a favourable vote of two-thirds (2/3) of the membership attending the business meetings. If presented by mail, a proposed amendment shall require for its adoption a favourable vote of a simple majority of the responding membership of the IBA.


Bryozoan Information on the World-Wide-Web

Phil Bock

Back in 1994, the WWW was in a fairly early stage of development, and we thought that a new browser called 'Mosaic' was really great for viewing images or hyper-linking between a range of documents. I had control of a networked UNIX computer at RMIT, and installed a web server as a trial. Then I thought of including a few pictures of bryozoans, and set up the 'Bryozoa Home Page' - there was a fashion for calling everything a 'Home Page', and there were few other materials on bryozoans. Over the past six years a lot of other material has been added, as a continuing experiment in providing information, but with no consistent plan to the development of the material. I am indebted to Dennis Gordon for providing a progressive classification of cheilostome genera, and to Paul Taylor's account of families (1993). I have tried to maintain a reasonably simple pattern to the structure, with the intention of allowing anyone else to understand the material.

During the same time, several generations of changes have been made to the popular techniques for presenting WWW material - such as Java, Dynamic HTML, frames, linking to databases, and the move towards the XML standard. I have generally avoided these novelties, partly because I am unwilling to invest the time in learning new systems, and mainly to maintain the structure of a simple file/page for each family, genus, and species (where appropriate). I think that XML will become important, but I will not develop my own definitions for bibliographic or taxonomic data, so I am waiting for the emergence of reasonably standard approaches. The whole thing is a 'work in progress'.

The purpose of the present article is particularly to appeal for more involvement by others, particularly in identifying errors and proposing improvements, as well as contributing additional material. I would particularly appreciate contributions of images or text to expand the material on species, as well as definitions of genera and families. Images can be mailed to me, or converted to a digital form and sent by email, or you can find a location on a web-server computer to store the file and tell me the location (or 'URL').

Some ideals for information systems:

  1. Reference Catalogue/ bibliographic database, with search by keyword (a Cumulative Zoological Record!)

  2. A comprehensive systematic approach, with historical information on synonyms, homonyms, and with the possibility of any users adding personal notes as informal commentaries.

  3. Historical and definitive material on each taxon (descriptions, illustrations, distributions)

  4. Construction of checklists

  5. Integrated catalogue of museum collections

  6. Identification keys

  7. Rare book library

  8. Current news.

I am committed to making data available for anyone to use or modify. I think that the design of such public data for storage/retrieval should be kept fairly simple, rather than in a complex, but technically more correct system (such as Paleobank). As there are no 'standard' approaches or software, it is preferable to use software which is widely available (even Microsoft!), and which allows the conversion to other current common formats. This article is to emphasise or to introduce some of the material which as available at present among the files that I have prepared. All the files are available on a CD-Rom to anyone who asks - although I am not yet able to prepare the filenames in a format so that a Macintosh computer can follow the links. (This was a result of deciding to use the full names of families and genera as filenames on the Unix system, while I usually work on a PC using Windows).

Some comments on the Web Pages

1. Families and Genera - at present, the intention is to have a 'page' (file) for every family and genus which is currently considered to be 'valid'. I have considered a separate file for many of the 'rejected names', such as 'Retepora', 'Lepralia' (which are likely to be encountered by non-experts in general texts), or like 'Cleidochasma' (objective synonym), or junior homonyms (like Atactopora Canu & Bassler, not Ulrich). The current status and membership of families is a difficult issue - I have no wish to be considered authoritative, but the act of writing a file into a subdirectory is a decision which is difficult to avoid. The uncertainty of our knowledge is best dealt with by adding annotations or comments, which should involve as many opposing opinions as possible. My knowledge of the Palaeozoic bryozoans is very limited: while I have relied on Paul Taylor's contribution in the 'Fossil Record II', there is also an alternative summary of families, based around the Russian publications for stenolaemates (www.civgeo.rmit.edu.au/bryozoa/steno.html). I would ask for further comments and corrections to these listings.

2. Species Lists for genera - these are being added slowly, from a personal database derived from the Zoological Record, and from progressively trawling through the references that I acquire. The lists prepared by Alan Horowitz are really useful, but their presentation makes the extraction of the most current of the names difficult. All species lists added so far are incomplete and highly tentative - and there are many, many more that have not been started. All users are asked to check carefully, and to tell me of the errors and omissions.

3. Adding text material - diagnoses/descriptions for families, genera, and species. I consider this to be a high priority addition, and I should approach some copyright holders for permission to use published material. (I just haven't got around to it.)

4. Adding species as pages - most of these are derived from my recent activities on the SEM. However, my work is more often being done on the large number of forms which are new, or which need revision, rather on the species for which the taxonomy is known with reasonable confidence. The species I have are mainly from southern Australia - until other workers add their own. You are invited to prepare your own material, so that I can provide the links to it, or to send me the files, or even photos or printed material to be scanned and converted to files.

5. Glossary - This job is done spasmodically - and not much has changed recently. Much more should be done to make this comprehensive, and to provide appropriate figures.

6. 'The Library' - adding scanned material from old publications is a slow process, as I am attempting to clean up each page thoroughly. Most of the material is derived from lithographic plates, which have been converted to black & white image files, rather than a greyscale image, in order to gain as much detail in as small a digital file as possible. After working through the British Museum catalogues, by Busk (1852, 1854, 1875), I have mainly worked on Australian material, including the plates from McCoy's 'Prodromus', and on the Proceeding of the Royal Society of Victoria. Several of the papers by Maplestone on Tertiary fossils have been converted to text, as HTML files, which saves space. An alternative approach has been used on some material by Crockford, on Palaeozoic fossils, where the scanned images of text have been converted to Adobe Portable Document Format. These files are rather large, but are an accurate copy from the original. Having all important systematic references available in a digital format would be a great idea, but the resources needed for achieving this would be considerable!

Other things. Having access to a website means that you can add files, but not tell everyone about them! A large number of files have no links leading to them. The members of the IBA should also try typing out www.civgeo.rmit.edu.au/bryozoa/iba

This leads to a list of members (not up-to date at present), and a list of email addresses where these are known. Also the IBA Constitution, access to my two databases (for systematics, and for references), a few photos.

An emerging project is to convert the bibliographies into annual lists, and to add annual lists of taxa (new /any?). This is still early in this development, but you can investigate at www.civgeo.rmit.edu.au/bryozoa/iba/yearindex.html

Note that current references are added only when I am told about them, or read of them from 'Bryozoa 199x' or the Zoological Record. I am selective - I have not added Abstracts, or some of the (numerous) papers where the bryozoan information is relatively minor. However, this is a personal, highly subjective judgment, and I am again appealing for your comments about improvements. When this listing is more mature, I will move the files to a different subdirectory and add links from the main page, and from some relevant genus pages.



the worldwide interactive e-mail discussion list on Biodiversity and Biotechnology.

This is a worldwide interactive forum for debate, collaboration, and networking devoted to the exchange of information, ideas and experiences on issues and trends relating to sustainable use, management and conservation of the world's biological diversity resources. The purpose of the list is to stimulate a broad range of views and information exchange on people, issues, policies, possibilities, problems, perspectives, case studies, practices, innovations and activities relating to sustainable preservation, conservation and utilisation of genetic and natural resources including all aspects relating to biotechnology, biosafety, business and biodiversity and cultural and spiritual values of biodiversity.

This open discussion list also provides news, comments, analysis and update on the implementation and the negotiations of the International Conventions on Biological Diversity (e.g. CBD, CITES, etc.)
To join the group, simply send a blank e-mail to: x_Biomonitor-subscribe@egroups.com

Please feel free to forward this message to other friends and colleagues interested in this debate.


5th Conference on the Biodiversity and Conservation of Invertebrates

December 1 - 4, 2001

Adelaide University, South Australia

Provisional Symposia

1. Rarity & sampling in invertebrate communities

2. Impact of invasive species

3. Invertebrate biodiversity of the arid zone & ephemeral waters

4. Marine invertebrate biodiversity

5. Molecular tools in invertebrate conservation

6. Legislation & education

Organising Committee

Andy Austin (Adelaide University)

Steve Cooper (SA Museum)

John Jennings (Adelaide University)

Remko Leijs (SA Museum)

Duncan Mackay (Flinders University)

Claire Stephens (Adelaide University)

For further information please contact the organising committee and consult the Conference Website for additional information and regular updates.


Update of Bryozoan pages at RMIT

Phil Bock font color="white">x_pbock@deakin.edu.au

Among the additions are:

A listing of references by Nina Denisenko, contributed by her to Mary Spencer Jones


A page of links to journals and publications - still at an early stage!


And a 'Noticeboard', including a request for nominations to the IBA Council:


You may not be aware that a range of resources are indicated in the page: http://www.civgeo.rmit.edu.au/bryozoa/iba/default.html

One of the projects (which is progressing very slowly) is a list of papers and new taxa arranged by year. Your criticism and additions would be gratefully accepted.



Judge Declares His Candidate Winner

Ken McKinney

Response to the 'highest number of species/area' competition proposed in the 1999 Newsletter was not overwhelming. Nils Spjeldnaes wrote to say that he had no candidates but that the question is interesting, and Piotr Kuklinski provided interesting information from his Master's thesis on bryozoan species richness on rock rubble substrata from his recently completed thesis, "Fauna of bryozoans, Kongsfjorden-Spitsbergen". Kuklinski's data were given as species per volume of substratum, from which I roughly calculated area by treating each substratum as if it were a perfect cube. Results from the various candidate substrata (Harmelin, Maturo, and I already had candidate specimens) are given below:

Upper interior surfaces of three Pinna nobilis shells from 20-27 m depth, Port-Cros Island (calculated as approximately 300 cm2 surface area):

21 species - 0.070/cm2

22 species - 0.073/cm2

29 species - 0.097/cm2

Upper interior surfaces of a Pinna nobilis from 25 m depth, Porquerolles Island:
23 species - 0.077/cm2

Upper interior surface of Spondylus gaederoptus shell from 15 m depth, Port-Cros Island (78cm2):

18 species - 0.231/cm2

Kuklinski's strongest candidate from among hundreds of specimens:

Rhizoid of the alga Alaria esculenta, 10 m depth (10cm3 = 20 cm2 if cube);

8 species - 0.400/cm2

'Fulcher Rock', 26-30 m depth, SW of Cape Lookout, North Carolina (37 cm/side = 2738 cm2 if thin plate);
77 species - 0.028/cm2

Unspecified pelecypod valve, southeastern US continental shelf, depth not given (10 cm diameter = 157 cm2 for both surfaces if circular valve):

28 species - 0.178/cm2

Outer surface of Lutraria lutraria valve from 30 m depth, Banjole Island, Rovinj, Croatia (72cm2):
25 species - 0.347/cm2

Upper interior surface of Lutraria lutraria valve from Banjole Island, Rovinj, Croatia (72cm2):

33 species - 0.458 /cm2

So, the 'winner' by a hair in this small sample is the interior surface of the Lutraria lutraria valve from the northeastern Adriatic Sea (Banjole Island). Interestingly, all the contending substrata were from inner shelf depths (10-30 m).


Action for Invertebrates

What is it?

Action for Invertebrates is a new project, established through a partnership of conservation organisations, contributing to the delivery of the UK's Biodiversity Action Plan (UK BAP).

In particular, with Species Action Plans (SAPS) now published for around 170 invertebrate species, the capacity within invertebrate societies to contribute to the delivery of these is at full stretch.

In response Action for Invertebrates is undertaking the lead partner role for 9 priority invertebrate species. Through this work it is also hoped to stimulate an increased interest in invertebrate conservation.



At the Rio Earth Summit in 1992 the UK Government became one of 150 countries to sign up to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Subsequently, in 1994, the publication of the UK BAP set out a broad strategy to conserve biodiversity within the UK and to contribute to the conservation of global biodiversity. In addition, the UK Biodiversity Steering Group was established with the task of preparing a detailed plan of action to achieve these objectives.

The Group has now published target-based Action Plans for about 40 priority habitats and 400 priority species.

Lead Partners

Lead partners have been assigned for each of the, priority species. They are responsible for co-ordinating the implementation of SAPS. Their role is to liaise with the key players (e.g. site managers, surveyors, policy makers and volunteers) - preparing work programmes, directing resources and stimulating action to ensure that the targets set out in each Action Plan are met.

The priority UK bryozoan species currently led by Action for Invertebrates
Lophopus crystallinus:

A freshwater bryozoan (Phylactolaemata: Lophopodidae) which forms colonies on a variety of substrata - usually submerged plants. It has only been recorded from 4 UK sites since 1970, in Norfolk, Oxon., Humberside and Lancashire. However, it is likely to be under-recorded due the limited number of people able to identify bryozoans.

Species Action Plans (SAPS)

Most SAPs follow a similar format, with details of the current status and action being undertaken for the species, followed by a list of proposed actions. These actions typically include:
• maintaining known populations through site protection and habitat management.
• conducting surveys throughout the historic range to establish the true status of the species.
• conducting autecological research to better inform habitat management.
• regular monitoring of known populations.
• reintroducing the species to suitable sites within its former range.
• addressing the requirements of the species within local and national environmental plans and policies.

How you can help

The actions listed above give an idea of the extent of work that is required and Action for Invertebrates cannot achieve all these things single-handedly. Your help could be crucial, particularly if you:
• already have records of these species.
• live near known populations and wish to help with regular monitoring or ecological study.
• live near suitable sites within a historic range and wish to help survey.
• know of, or are involved with a site which may be suitable for reintroductions.
• are practised in habitat management techniques that could be applied to these species?
• are involved in planning or policy development in areas where these species need protection.


Action for Invertebrates is a partnership project set up by Biodiversity Challenge, English Nature and the Joint Committee for the Conservation of British Invertebrates (JCCBI).

Biodiversity Challenge is a partnership of voluntary conservation organisations who have been working together since 1993 to further the conservation of biodiversity in the UK. This coalition is comprised of Butterfly Conservation, Friends of the Earth, Plantlife, RSPB, the Wildlife Trusts and WWF UK.

English Nature is the government agency responsible for nature conservation in England. It plays a major role in the development and delivery of the UK BAP.

The JCCBI is a consortium of invertebrate societies interested in all aspects of the conservation of British invertebrates. Its constituent members include the Amateur Entomologists' Society, Balfour Brown Club, British Arachnological Society, British Entomological and Natural History Society, British Isopoda Study Group, British Myriapod Group, Bee Improvement and Bee Breeders' Association, Bees Wasps and Ants Recording Society, Butterfly Conservation, Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Dipterists' Forum and the Royal Entomological Society.

Contact Details

If you would like further information on the project, or would like to offer your assistance, please contact:
Ian Middlebrook, 'Action for Invertebrates', c/o RSPB, The Lodge, Sandy, Beds, SC19 2DL

Tel: 01767 680551 ext. 2498 E-mail: x_ian.rniddlebrook@rspb.org.uk


3rd Larwood Symposium

The 3rd Larwood Symposium was held at The Natural History Museum, London on the 12th December 2000. As usual it was extremely well attended and included some of our Scandinavian colleagues. Below is a list of the talks present. If you wish to read the abstracts, then these can be found at the IBA website.

There will not be a meeting during 2001, due to the IBA conference in Dublin. However, several people have already offered to host the symposium during 2002.

Kevin Tilbrook
The "well known" species Trypostega venusta!?

John S. Ryland, Joanne S. Porter & Samantha de Putron
The genus Alcyonidium (Bryozoa) in the Bristol Channel and south-west Wales: recognition and ecology of intertidal species.

Andrea Wäschenbach, Peter J. Hayward, David O. F. Skibinski
Bowerbankia gracilis/B.caudata - the same species?

Joanne S Porter, Peter J Hayward, Jean Leamon, Chris Beynon & David O F Skibinski
Molecular phylogeny of the ctenostomate genus Alcyonidium using 12S and 16S mitochondrial DNA genes

Simon A. Morley, Roger N. Hughes and David Atkinson
Temperature, oxygen and body size in Celleporella hyalina

Francisco Kelmo, Martin J. Attrill & Malcolm B. Jones
Long term monitoring of coral reef bryozoans from the South Atlantic

Caroline J. Buttler, Patrick N. Wyse Jackson & Marcus M. Key, Jr.
Bryozoa from the Courtown Limestone Formation and the Tramore Limestone Formation (Llandeilo, Ordovician), Counties Wexford and Waterford, Ireland.

Patrick N. Wyse Jackson, Caroline J. Buttler & Marcus M. Key, Jr.
Palaeoenvironmental interpretation of the Tramore Limestone Formation (Llandeilo, Ordovician) based on bryozoan colony form and preservation.

Paul Whittlesea
Sub-colony development in the encrusting tubuliporate genus Plagioecia s.l., a possible defence mechanism against contemporary encrusting organisms?

Simon H.H. Nielsen
Late Cretaceous free living bryzoans.

Andrej Ernst & Paul D. Taylor
Evolutionary radiation of bryozoans in the Ordovician

Aaron O'Dea
Zooid size analysis in Tropical American Cupuladriid bryozoans.

Nils Spjeldnaes
Ordovician bryozoans from a Black Shale

Ian Middlebrook
The conservation of Lophopus crystallinus in Britain



One of the more important parts of the annual IBA Newsletter is the listing of recently published papers on bryozoans or that mention bryozoans. The Newsletter editor can compile listings from current biological and paleontological bibliographic sources, but none of these sources is complete. In fact, some of the omissions are amazing. PLEASE, send reprints of your publications to the editor to be sure that they are sure to be included in the listing, and any time you encounter a publication that mentions bryozoans and that you think the editor should know about, please either send a photocopy or an email note about it to the editor. It takes all of us to make the bibliography as complete as possible.

Adami, M.L. & Gordillo, S. 1999. Structure and dynamics of the biota associated with Macrocystis pyrifera (Phaeophyta) from the Beagle Channel, Tierra del Fuego. Scientia Marina, 63, 183-191.

Anderson, C.L., Canning, E.U. & Okamura, B. 1999. 18S rDNA sequences indicate that PKX organism parasitizes Bryozoa. Bulletin of the European Association of Fish Pathology, 19 (3), 94-97.

Antipenko I.I. 1999. Peculiarities of feeding behaviour of Cristatella mucedo (Phylactolaemata : Bryozoa). Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii, 60 (1), 109-117.

Barnes, D.K.A. 1999. Do life patterns differ between two Scotia Arc localities? A preliminary investigation of three erect Antarctic bryozoan species. Antarctic Science, 11 (3), 275-282.

Barnes, D.K.A. & Dick, M.H. 2000. Overgrowth competition between clades: implications for interpretation of the fossil record and overgrowth indices. Biological Bulletin, 199, 85-94.

Bergy, A. & Denning, D. 1999. Phylum Bryozoa (Ectoprocta). Pp. 423-446. In: Kozloff E.N. [ed.] Marine Invertebrates of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Bishop, J.D.D., Manriquez, P.H. & Hughes, R.N. 2000. Water-borne sperm trigger vitellogenic egg growth in two sessile marine invertebrates. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 267 (1449), 1165-1169.

Boardman, R.S. 1999. Indications of polypides in feeding zooids and polymorphs in Lower Paleozoic Trepostomata (Bryozoa). Journal of Paleontology, 73 (5), 803-815.

Bock, P.E. & Cook, P.L. 1998. Otionellidae, a new family including five genera of free-living, lunulitiform Bryozoa (Cheilostomatida). Memorie di Scienze Geologiche, 50, 195-211.

Bock, P.E. & Cook, P.L. 1998. A new species of multiphased Corbulipora MacGillivray, 1895 (Bryozoa: Cribriomorpha) from Southwestern Australia. Records of the South Australian Museum, 30, 2, 63-68.

Bock, P.E. & Cook, P.L. 1999. Notes on Tertiary and Recent 'lunulite' Bryozoa from Australia. Memorie di Scienze Geologiche, 51/2, 415-430.

Brey, T., Gerdes, D., Gutt, J., Mackensen, A. & Starmans, A. 1999. Growth and age of the Antarctic bryozoan Cellaria incula on the Weddell Sea shelf. Antarctic Science, 11 (4), 408-414.

Canning, E.U., Curry, A., Feist, S.W., Longwhaw, M. & Okamura, B. 2000. A new class and order of myxozoans to accommodate parasites of bryozoans with ultrastructural observations on Tetracapsula bryosalmonae (PKX organism). Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 47 (5), 456-468.

Carrera, M.G. 2000. Epizoan-sponge interactions in the early Ordovician of the Argentine Precordillera. Palaios, 15 (4), 261-272.

Cesar-Aldariz, J., Fernandez-Pulpeiro, E. & Reverter-Gil, O. 1999. A new species of the genus Celleporella (Bryozoa : Cheilostomatida) from the European Atlantic coast. Journal of the Marine Biological Association U.K., 79 (1), 51-55.

Cheetham, A.H. & Jackson, J.B.C. 2000. Neogene history of cheilostome Bryozoa in Tropical America. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference, 1-16.

Cleary, D. & Wyse Jackson, P.N. 1999. Generic revision using multivariate statistics of the genus Stenophragmidium Bassler, 1952 (Trepostomata, Bryozoa) from the Carboniferous of the British Isles. Irish Journal of Earth Sciences, 17, 126.

Cleary, D. & Wyse Jackson, P.N. 1999. Covert creatures from the Carboniferous: Stenophragmidium (Trepostomata, Bryozoa) from the Lower Carboniferous of the British Isles. Irish Journal of Earth Sciences 17, 126.

Cocito, S., Sgorbin,i S. & Bianchi, C.N. 1998. Aspects of the biology of the bryozoan Pentapora fascialis in the northwestern Mediterranean. Marine Biology, 131, 73-82.

Cocito, S., Ferdeghini, F., Morri, C. & Bianchi, C.N. 2000. Patterns of bioconstruction in the cheilostome bryozoan Schizoporella errata: the influence of hydrodynamics and associated biota. Marine Ecology - Progress Series, 192, 153-161.

Collie, J.S., Escanero, G.A., & Valentine, P.C. 2000. Photographic evaluation of the impacts of bottom fishing on benthic epifauna. ICES Journal of Marine Sciences, 57 (4), 987-1001.

Cook, G.C. 1996. George Busk, FRS (1807-1886): Surgeon, zoologist, parasitologist and palaeontologist. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 90 (6), 715-716.

Cook, P.L. & Bock, P.E. 2000. Two new genera of Bryozoa (Calloporidae) from New Zealand. Journal of Natural History, 34 (7), 1125-1133.

Cook, P.L. & Bock, P.E. 2000. Occurrence of two colony growth phases in Dimetopia hirta MacGillivray from Australia. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference, 182-188.

Cranfield, H.J., Gordon, D.P., Willan, R.C., Marshall, B.A., Battershill, C.N., Francis, M.P., Nelson, W.A., Glasby, C.J. & Read, G.B. 1998. Adventive marine species in New Zealand. NIWA Technical Report 34. NIWA, Wellington, New Zealand, 48 pp.

Crowley, S.F. & Taylor, P.D. 2000. Stable isotope composition of modern bryozoan skeletal carbonate from the Otago Shelf, New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine & Freshwater Research, 34, 2, 331-351.

d'Hondt, J.-L. 1997. Adaptations in the Bryozoa. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 122 (2), 137-148.

d'Hondt, J.-L. 1997. Are the bryozoa protostome or deuterostome animals? Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 122 (3), 261-268.

d'Hondt, J.-L. 1997. The current systematics of the eurystome Bryozoa. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 122 (3), 289-301.

d'Hondt, J.-L. 2000. Vade-Mecum du jeune zoologiste. Oceanis, 25, 1, 1-189.

d'Hondt, J.L. 2000. Aux source de l'invention taxinomique: le cas des Bryozoaires Eurystomes actuels. In: Les sciences et leurs langages, Editions du CTHS, Ministére de la Recherche, Paris, 157-176.

d'Hondt, J.-L. 2000. Presence du Bryozoaire Phylactolaemate Plumatella repens (Linne, 1758) en Dordogne. Bulletin mensuel de la Société linnée de Lyon, 69, 29-31

d'Hondt, J.-L. 2000. Discovery of some types of cheilostomatous Bryozoa described from 1812 to 1824 by J.-V.-E. Lamouroux. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference, 211-218.

d'Hondt, J.-L & Goyffon, M. 1996. Electrophoretic study of some geographic isolates of Alcyonidium polyoum (Hassall, 1841) (Bryozoa, Ctenostomatida) in the Channel and North Sea. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 121 (4), 321-329.

Dyrynda, P.E.J., Ferrall, V.R., Occhipinti, A. & d'Hondt, J.-L. 2000. The distribution, origins and taxonomy of Tricellaria inopinata d'Hondt and Occhipinti Ambrogi, 1985, an invasive bryozoan new to the Atlantic. Journal of Natural History, 34 (10), 1193-2006.

Ernst, A. 1997. Environmental distribution and paleoecology of bryozoans of the Upper Permian Zechstein Sea - Evolution of the Life on the Earth. I-st International Symposium. 24-28 November 1997, 66-67, Tomsk State University.

Ernst, A. 1998. Bryozoa of the Upper Permian Zechstein Sea (German Basin). - Upper Permian Stratotypes of the Volga Region. International Symposium (Abstracts), 27 July-4 August 1998. 37-38, Kazan.

Ernst, A. 2000. Permian bryozoans of the NW-Tethys. FACIES, 43, 79-102.

Fabricius, K.E. & Wolanski, E. 2000. Rapid smothering of coral reef organisms by muddy marine snow. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 50, 115-120.

Fedje, D.W. & Josenhans, H. 2000. Drowned forests and archaeology on the continental shell of British Columbia, Canada. Geology, 28 (2), 99-102.

Ferdeghini, F. & Cocito, S. 1999. Biologically generated diversity in two bryozoan buildups. Biologia Marina Mediterranena, 6 (1),191-197.

Freeland, J.R., Noble, L.R. & Okamura, B. 2000. Genetic consequences of the metapopulation biology of a facultatively sexual freshwater invertebrate. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 13, 383-395.

Freeland, J.R., Noble, L.R. & Okamura, B. 2000. Genetic diversity of North American populations of Cristatella mucedo, inferred from microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA. Molecular Ecology, 9, 1375-1389.

Friedrich, C., Ingolic, E., Freitag, B., Kastberger, G., Hohmann, V., Skofitsch, G., Neumeister, U. & Kepka, O. 2000. A myxozoan-like parasite causing xenomas in the brain of the mole, Talpa europaea L., 1758 (Vertebrata, Mammalia). Parasitology, 121, 483-492.

Galopim de Carvalho, A.M. 2000. Jazida de Briozoarios do Miocenico Inferior de Lisboa Polo Sampaio Bruno. Camara Municipal de Lisboa, 36 pp.

Gilmour, E.H. & Snyder, E.M. 2000. Bryozoa of the Mission Argillite (Permian), northeastern Washington. Journal of Paleontology, 74 (4), 545-570.

Giribet, G., Distel, D.L., Polz, M., Sterrer, W. & Wheeler, W.C. 2000. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Platyhelminthes, and Chaetognatha: A combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology. Systematic Biology, 49 (3), 539-562.

Gordon, D.P. 1999. Bryozoan diversity in New Zealand and Australia. Pp 199-204 In: Ponder, W. & Lunney, D. [eds] The Other 99%. The Conservation and Biodiversity of Invertebrates. Transactions of the Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales, Mosman.

Gordon, D.P. 2000. First fossil occurrence of the austral bryozoan family Urceoliporidae. New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics, 43 (3), 385-389.

Gordon, D.P. 2000. Towards a phylogeny of cheilostomes - morphological models of frontal wall/shield evolution. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference, 17-37.

Gordon, D.P. & Wear, R.G. 1999. A new ctenostome bryozoan ectosymbiotic with terminal-moult paddle crabs (Portunidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Zoology, 26 (4), 373-380.

Grischenko, A.V., Mawatari, S.F. & Taylor, P.D. 2000. Systematics and phylogney of the cheilostome bryozoan Doryporella. Zoologica Scripta, 29, 247-264.

Hageman, S.J., James, N.P. & Bone, Y. 2000. Cool-water carbonate production from epizoic bryozoans on ephemeral substrates. Palaios, 15, 33-48.

Hayward, P.J. 2000. Lace corals (Bryozoa : Phidoloporidae) from Australia and the tropical south-west Pacific. Journal of Zoology, 252, 109-136.

Kamano, Y., Kotake, A., Hashima, H., et al. 1999. Three new alkaloids, convolutamines F and G, and convolutamydine E, from the Floridian marine bryozoan Amathia convoluta. Collect Czech Chem C, 64 (7), 1147-1153.

Kohler, J., Hansen, P.D, & Wahl, M. 1999. Colonization patterns at the substratum-water interface: how does surface microtopography influence recruitment patterns of sessile organisms? Biofouling, 14 (3), 237-248.

Kotlyar, G.V. & Popeko, L.I. 1996. Regional stratigraphic subdivisions of the Carboniferous in the Mongol-Okhotsk Fold Belt. Geology of the Pacific Ocean, 12, 283-292.

Kotlyar, G.V., Zakharov, Yu.D., Popeko, L.I., Tazawa, J. & Burago, V.I. 1999. Layers with Timorites in East Asia. Geology of the Pacific Ocean, 14, 361-380.

Kundal, P. 2000. First record of Bryozoa from Late Miocene limestone of Baratang Island, Andaman, India. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 56 (4), 441-444.

Larsen, N. & Håkansson, E. 2000. Microfacies mosaics across latest Maastrichtian bryozoan mounds in Denmark. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference, 272-281.

Lisbjerg, D. & Petersen, J.K. 2000. Clearance capacity of Electra bellula (Bryozoa) in seagrass meadows of Western Australia. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology, 244 (2), 285-296.

Longshaw, M., Feist, S.W., Canning, E.U. and Okamura, B. 1999. First identification of PKX in bryozoans from the United Kingdom - Molecular evidence. Bulletin of the European Association Fish P, 19 (4), 146-148.

Lopez de la Cuadra, C.M. & Garcia Gomez, J.C. 2000. The Cheilostomate Bryozoa (Bryozoa : Cheilostomatida) collected by the Spanish 'Antartida 8611' expedition to the Scotia Arc and South Shetland Islands. Journal of Natural History, 34 (5), 755-772.

López Gappa, J. 2000. Species richness of marine Bryozoa in the continental shelf and slope off Argentina (south-west Atlantic). Diversity and Distributions, 6, 15-27.

Maldonado, M. & Young, C.M. 1999. Effects of the duration of larval life on postlarval stages of the demosponge Sigmadocia caerulea. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology, 232 (1), 9-21.

Marcus, S. & d'Hondt, J.-L. 1998. Expression of micro-environmental factors on the phenograms of a marine sessile invertebrate Alcyonidium polyoum (Hassall, 1841) (Bryozoa, Ctenostomatida). Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France, 123 (2), 125-139.

Maughan, B.C. & Barnes, D.K.A. 2000. Epilithic boulder communities of Lough Hyne, Ireland: the influences of water movement and sediment. Journal of Marine Biological Association U.K., 80 (5), 767-776.

McConnaughey, R.A., Mier, K.L. & Dew, C.B. 2000. An examination of chronic trawling effects on soft-bottom benthos of the eastern Bering Sea. ICES Journal of Marine Sciences, 57, 1377-1388.

McGhee, G.R.Jr & McKinney, F.K. 2000. A theoretical morphologic analysis of convergently evolved erect helical colony form in the Bryozoa. Paleobiology, 26 (4), 556-577.

McKinney, F.K. 2000. Phylloporinids and the phylogeny of the Fenestrida. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference, 54-65.

McKinney, F.K. 2000. Colony sizes and occurrence patterns among Bryozoa encrusting disarticulated bivalves in the Northeastern Adriatic Sea. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference, 282-290.

McKinney, F.K. 2000. Bryozoa (paleoecology). Pp. 67-69. In: McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science & Technology 2001. McGraw-Hill, New York.

McKinney, F.K. & Jaklin, A. 2000. Spatial niche partitioning in the Cellaria meadow epibiont association, northern Adriatic Sea. Cahiers de Biologie Marine, 41 (1), 1-17.

Moisette, P. 2000 Changes in bryozoan assemblages and bathymetric variations. Examples from the Messinian of northwest Algeria. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 155, 305-326.

Morris, D.J., Adams, A. & Richards, R.H. 2000. Observations on the electron-dense bodies of the PKX parasite, agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. Disease of Aquatic Organisms, 39 (3), 201-209.

Moyano G., H.I. 1997. Revision de la diversidad y de las conexiones zoogeograficas de los briozoos magallánicos. Gayana, Zoologia, 61 (2), 125-139.

Moyano G., H.I. 1999. Magellan Bryozoa: a review of the diversity and of the Subantarctic and Antarctic zoogeographical links. Scientia Marina, 63, Supl. 1, 219-226.

Moyano G., H.I. 1999. El genero Crisidia Milne-Edwards 1838 (Bryozoa cyclostomatida) en aguas Antarticas con la descripcion de una especie nueva. Boletin de la Sociedad de Biologia de Concepción, 70, 55-59.

Moyano G., H.I. 2000. Bryozoa from the Magellanic Continental Slope near Cape Horn: an unexpected collection. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference, 298-304.

Moyano G., H.I. & Ristedt, H. 2000. The Sclerodomidae (Bryozoa) of the Eastern Weddell Sea collected during the Antarctic I, II, V Expeditions of the R/V Polarstern. Gayana, 64 (1), 83-107.

Nikulina, E.A. 1998. Puti obrazovania trechmernych form v evolutzii mshanok otryada Cheilostomata (Ways of development of three dimensional forms in the evolution of the Bryozoa of the order ?heilostomata. Abstracts of the III Scientific Conference of White Sea Biostation names of Pertzov, N. A., Moscow University, 67-68. [In Russian]

Nikulina, E.A. 1999. Vosvyshaushiesa tzepochki - neobychnaya forma rosta Electra crustulenta var. arctica Borg 1931 (Bryozoa, Cheolostomata) (Raising chains - unusual growth form of Electra crustulenta var. arctica Borg, 1931 (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata). Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta, Geologiya, N 2, 40-44. [In Russian]

Nikulina, E.A. 1999. Structure and development of colonies in Eucretea loricata (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata). Russian Journal of Zoology, 3 (3), 439-443.

Nikulina, E.A. 1999. Structure and development of a Eucratea loricata (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata) colony. Zoologi Zhurnal, 78 (7), 860-865.

Nikulina, E.A. 1999. Substrate reaction of buds in pearlworts of the class Eurystomata with special reference to the formation of colonies. Russian Journal of Developmental Biology, 30 (4), 209-217.

Nikulina, E.A. 2000. Substrate-dependent growth and morphogenetic evolution of bryozoans of the order Cheilostomata. Paleontological Journal, 34 (1), 53-58.

Nikulina, E.A. 2000."Stolonialnoe" razmnozhenie Electra crustulenta var. arctica Borg, 1931 (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata). ("Stolonial" development of Electra crustulenta var. arctica Borg, 1931 (Bryozoa, Cheilostomata). Byulletin' Moskovskogo Obshchestva Ispytateley Priorody, N. 2, 4-5. [In Russian]

O'Dea, A., & Okamura, B. 2000. Intracolony variation in zooid size in cheilostome bryozoans as a new technique for investigating palaeoseasonality. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatatology, Palaeoecology, 162 (3-4), 319-332.

Okland, K.A. & Okland, J. 2000. Freshwater bryozoans (Bryozoa) of Norway: Distribution and ecology of Cristatella mucedo and Paludicella articulata. Hydrobiologia, 421, 1-24.

Opravilova, V. & Kubicek, F. 1999. Bryozoa. In: Opravilova V., Vanhara J. & Sukop I. [eds] Aquatic Invertebrates of the Pálava Biosphere Reserve of UNESCO. Folia fac. Sci Nat. Univ. Masaryk. brun., Biol., 101, 269-272.

Popeko, L.I. 1996. Carboniferous bryozoan zones of the Mongol-Okhotsk Fold Belt. Geology of the Pacific Ocean, 12, 449-460.

Popeko, L.I. 1997. Biogeography of Late Permian Bryozoa in the Southern Russian Far east. Geology of the Pacific Ocean, 13, 647-668.

Popeko, L.I. 2000. Carboniferous of the Mongol-Okhotsk orogenic belt. Vladivostok, Dalnauka, 2000, 124 pp.

Pouyet, S., El Hajjaji, K. & Mihraje, A.I. 1999. Lower Pliocene Bryozoa from Asilah (NW Morocco). Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Abhandlungen, 213 (1), 119-144.

Rasser, M.W. 2000. Coralline red algal limestones of the Late Eocene alpine foreland basin in Upper Austria: Component analysis, facies and palecology. FACIES, 42, 59-92.

Reguant, S. 1999. Thirty one years (1968-1998) of Bryozoology: The I.B.A. International Conferences. Memorias de la Real Academia de Ciencias y Artes de Barcelona, 58 (4), 139-153.

Reguant, S. 2000. On chronostratigraphic calibration using Bryozoa: suggestions from two Paleogene case studies. Revista Española de Paleontología, 15 (1), 71-75.

Reguant, S. & Amblàs, D. 2000. Las briozoaritas de la formación Margas de Gurb. (Bartoniense, área de Vic, Barcelona). Geotemas, 1 (2), 183-186.

Reverter-Gil O, & Fernandez-Pulpeiro E. 1999. Some little-known species of Bryozoa described by J. Jullien. Journal of Natural History, 33 (9), 1403-1418.

Reynolds, K.T. 2000. Taxonomically important features on the surface of floatoblasts in Plumatella (Bryozoa). Microsc Microanal, 6 (3), 202-210.

Richer de Forges, B., Koslow, J.A. & Poore, G.C.B. 2000. Diversity and endemism of the benthic seamount fauna in the southwest Pacific. Nature, 405, 944-947.

Rosso, A. 1999. Amphiblestrum (Aviculamphiblestrum) ruggeroi sp n., subgen. n. (Bryozoa) from the western Mediterranean Sea. Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia, 105 (3), 465-469.

Rosso, A. 1999. Recent and fossil species of Characodoma Maplestone, 1900 (Bryozoa) from the Mediterranean with description of two new species. Journal of Natural History, 33 (3), 415-437.

Rosso, A. & Sanfilippo, R. 2000. Shallow-water bryozoans and serpuloideans from the Ross Sea (Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica). p515-525 In: Faranda, Guglielmo, Ionora [Eds.] 2000 Ross Sea Ecology. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Ryland, J.S. & Porter, J.S. 2000. Alcyonidium reticulum sp nov., a common intertidal bryozoan from south-west Britain. Journal of Marine Biological Association U.K., 80 (3), 563-564.

Sensenbaugh, T. & Franzen, A. 1998. Ultrastructural study of metamorphosis in the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella fungosa (Bryozoa, Phylactolaemata). Invertebrate Reproduction & Development, 34 (2-3), 301-308.

Sepkoski, J.J., Jr., McKinney, F.K. & Lidgard, S. 2000. Competitive displacement among post Paleozoic cyclostome and cheilostome bryozoans. Paleobiology, 26 (1), 7-18.

Shimizu, K., Hunter, E. & Fusetani, N. 2000. Localisation of biogenic amines in larvae of Bugula neritina (Bryozoa : Cheilostomatida) and their effects on settlement. Marine Biology, 136 (1), 1-9.

Shunatova, N.N. 1999. Some behaviour peculiarities and formation of directed water flow in pearlwort colonies (Bryozoa : Gymnolaemata). Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii, 60 (1), 118-128.

Spjeldnaes, N. 2000. Cryptic bryozoans from West Africa. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference, 385-391.

Stachowicz, J.J. & Hay, M.E. 2000. Geographic variation in camouflage specialization by a decorator crab. American Naturalist, 156 (1), 59-71.

Starcher, R.W. & McGhee, G.R. 2000. Fenestrate theoretical morphology: geometric constraints on lophophore shape and arrangement in extinct Bryozoa. Paleobiology, 26 (1), 116-136.

Taylor, P.D. 2000. Origin of the modern bryozoan fauna. Pp.195-206. In: Culver S.J. & Rawson P.F. (eds), Biotic Response to Global Change. The Last 145 Million Years. The Natural History Museum & Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Taylor, P.D. 2000. Cyclostome sytematics: phylogeny, suborders and the problem of skeletal organization. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference, 87-103.

Taylor, P.D. & Cheetham, A.H. 2000. Gilbert Powell Larwood (1930-1997). Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference.

Taylor, P.D. & McKinney, F.K. 2000. Reinterpretation of Stictostega Shaw, 1967, an Upper Cretaceous cheilostome bryozoan from Arkansas. Journal of Paleontology, 74 (1), 1-6.

Taylor, P.D. & Weedon, M.J. 2000. Skeletal ultrastructure and phylogeny of cyclostome bryozoans. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 128, 337-399.

Thakur, N.L. & Anil, A.C. 2000. Antibacterial activity of the sponge Ircinia ramosa: importance of its surface-associated bacteria. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 26 (1), 57-71.

Thenius, E. & Vavra, N. 1996. Fossilien im Volksglauben und im Alltag.Bedeutung und Verwendung vorzeitlicher Tier- und Pflanzenreste von der Steinzeit bis heute. (=Senckenbergbuch 71).-180 S.,197 Abb. .Kramer,Frankfurt a.Main.

Tilbrook, K.J. 2000. First record of the bryozoan genus Stylopoma from the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Marine Biological Association U.K., 80 (5), 949-950.

Tilbrook, K.J. 2000. New bryozoan family from the Indo-Pacific shows unexpected diversity. Journal of Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, 80, 3709, 1-2.

Tilbrook, K.J. 2001. Indo-West pacific species of the genus Stylopoma Levinsen, 1909 (Bryozoa: Cheilostomatida). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 131 (1), 1-34.

Tilbrook, K.J., Hayward, P.J. & Gordon, D.P. 2001. Cheilostomatous Bryozoa from Vanuatu. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 131 (1), 35-109.

Todd, J.A. 2000. The central role of ctenostomes in bryozoan phylogeny. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference, 104-135.

Vavra, N. 2000. Biogeographical Aspects of Bryozoan Faunas of the Central Paratethys from the Miocene. Proceedings of the 11th Conference of the International Bryozoology Association Conference, 392 - 399.

Vavra, N. 2000. August Emanuel Ritter von REUSS - der Begründer der Mikropaläontologie in Österreich. - Ber. Inst. Geol. Paläont. K.-F-Univ. Graz, 1, 58-59 (= Geschichte der Erdwissenschaften in Österreich, 2. Symposium, Abstracts), Graz.

Viskova L.A. 1999. Diversity of modular organisation of post-Palaeozoic marine Bryozoa. Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii, 60, 1, 99-108.

Voigt, E. 1998. Osculipora prescheri n.sp. (Bryozoa, Cyclostomata, Fam. Cytididae Bassler, 1953) aus dem Baltischen Danium. Abhandlungen des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, 43/44, 293-303

Voigt, E. 1999. Neue Bryozoen aus dem Baltischen Danium (I. Cheilstomata). Greifswalder Geowissenschaftliche Beitrage, 6, 301-325.

Weedon, M.J. & Taylor, P.D. 2000. Skeletal ultrastructure of primitive cheilostome bryozoans. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference, 400-411.

Wender, P.A., Hinkle, K.W., Koehler, M.F.T., et al. 1999. The rational design of potential chemotherapeutic agents: Synthesis of bryostatin analogues. Med Res Rev, 19, 5, 388-407.

Wendt, D.E. 2000 Energetics of larval swimming and metamorphosis in four species of Bugula (Bryozoa). Biology Bulletin, 198, 3, 346-356.

Wendt, D.E. & Woollacott, R.M. 1998. Ontogenies of phototactic behavior and metamorphic competence in larvae of three species of Bugula (Bryozoa). Invertebrate Biology, 118, 1, 75-84.

Winston, J.E. 1998. Clonal creatures of pond & stream. Virginia Explorer, 14, 1, 24-25.

Winston, J.E., Hayward, P.J. & Craig, S.F. 2000. Marine bryozoans of the northeast coast of the United States: new and problem species. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference, 412-420.

Wood, T.S. & Wood, L.J. 2000. Statoblast morphology in historical specimens of phylactolaemate bryozoans. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference, 421-430.

Woss, E. 2000. Colonization and development of freshwater bryozoan communities on artificial substrates in the Laxenburg Pond (Lower Austria). Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference, 431-438.

Wyse Jackson, P.N. 2000. Rhombocladia dichotoma (M'Coy, 1844) [Fenestrata, Bryozoa]: designation of a lectotype. Bulletin of the Natural History Museum (Geology Series), 56, 133-134.

Xing, J. & Qian, P.Y. 1999. Tower cells of the marine bryozoan Membranipora membranacea. Journal of Morphology, 239 (2), 121-130.

Zágorsek, K. 1997. Eocene Anascan Bryozoa from New localities in the Western Carpathians, Slovakia. Geologica Carpathica, 48, 6, 401 - 409.

Zágorsek, K. 1999. Eocene bryozoan marl in Austria and its comparison Proceedings from the Second Romanian Symposium of Paleontology, Cluj-Napoca.

Zágorsek, K. 1999. Eocene Bryozoa build-up in Austria and its possibly Recent Equivalents" Conference proceeding of SAMSS 2000, Wilderness, South Africa.

Zágorsek, K. 2000. Eocénna batymetria Slovenska na základe rastovch foriem machoviek [Eocene bathymetry of Slovakia based on Bryozoa growth forms] Mineralia Slovaca, 32, 5-6, 89-98.

Zágorsek, K. 2000. Redescription of Unifissurinella Poignant, 1991 from Eocene in Austria and Its Systematic Affinities. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie Monatshefte, 5, 314- 320.

Zágorsek, K & Vávra, N. 2000. A new method for the extraction of bryozoans from hard rocks from the Eocene of Austria. Jahrbuch der Geologischen Bundesanstalt, 142 (2), 249-258.


Conference Proceedings of the International Bryozoology Association

Many of these volumes are still available. Please contact the specific conference editor(s) if you are interested in obtain a copy.

First Conference
Held at Milan, August 12-16, 1968.
The Conference Proceedings were published as: Annoscia, E., 1968. Proceedings of the First International Conference on Bryozoa. Atti della Societa di Scienze Naturalia del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano. Vol. 108, Milano.

Second Conference OUT OF PRINT SINCE 1982
Held at Durham, UK, 6-16 September, 1971.
The Conference Proceedings were published as: Larwood, G.P., 1973. Living and Fossil Bryozoa. Recent Advances in Research. Academic Press, London and New York. ISBN 0-12-436950-2

Third Conference
Held at Lyons, France, 2-11 September, 1974.
The Conference Proceedings were published as: Pouyet, S., 1975. Bryozoa 1974. Proceedings of the Third Conference. International Bryozoology Association. Documents des Laboratoires de Geologie de la Faculte des Sciences de Lyon, HS 3 (fasc. 1,2). Universite Claude Bernard, Lyon.

Fourth Conference OUT OF PRINT SINCE 1995
Held at Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA, 7-17 September, 1977.
The Conference Proceedings were published as: Larwood, G.P., & Abbott, M.B., 1979. Advances in Bryozoology. Academic Press, London. (The Systematics Association, Special Volume No.13) ISBN 0-12-437450-6

Held at Durham, United Kingdom, 1-6 September, 1980.
The Conference Proceedings were published as: Larwood, G.P., & Nielsen, C., 1981. Recent and Fossil Bryozoa. Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg.

Held at Wien, Austria, 18-23 July, 1983. The Conference Proceedings were published as: Nielsen, C., & Larwood, G.P., 1985. Bryozoa: Ordovician to Recent. Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg.

Seventh Conference
Held at Bellingham, Washington, USA, 4-9 August, 1986.
The Conference Proceedings were published as: Ross, J.R.P. 1987. Bryozoa: Present and Past. Western Washington University Press, Bellingham.

Eighth Conference
Held at Paris, France, 17-22 August, 1989.
The Conference Proceedings were published as: Bigey, F.P., 1991. Bryozoaires Actuels et Fossiles. Bulletin de la Societe Sciences Naturelles de la Ouest de France, Memoire H.S. 1. Nantes.

Ninth Conference
Held at Swansea, Wales, 25 July - 1 August, 1992.
The Conference Proceedings were published as: Hayward, P.J., Ryland, J.S. & Taylor, P.D., 1994. Biology and Palaeobiology of Bryozoans. Olsen & Olsen, Fredensborg.

Tenth Conference
Held at Wellington, New Zealand, 30 January - 3 February 1995.
The Conference Proceedings were published as: Gordon, Dennis.P., Smith, Abigail M., & Grant-Mackie, Jack.A., 1996. Bryozoans in Space and Time. NIWA, Wellington.

Eleventh Conference
Held at Panamá, 26 - 31 January 1998.
The Conference Proceedings were published as: Herrera-Cubilla, A. and J.B.C. Jackson. 2000. Proceedings of the 11th International Bryozoology Association Conference. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama