Tetrocycloecia Canu, 1919

Three genera have been defined with the same nominal type species, Ceriopora dichotoma Goldfuss, 1827. These are Tetrocycloecia, Grammascosoecia and Pseudoceriopora.

Canu (1919) introduced Tetrocycloecia. Canu, 1919 with the type species defined as "Ceriopora dichotoma Goldfuss, 1827 sensu Reuss, 1848". However, Canu was using French material, and this was likely not the same as Reuss' species. In 1920, Canu & Bassler corrected the name to Tretocycloecia, and the type species was listed as "Tretocycloecia (Heteropora) dichotoma Reuss , 1847, not Hagenow, 1851". (Hagenow did not introduce a new species, but identified the Goldfuss species as a new combination). The spelling Tretocycloecia is an unjustified emendation that has been rejected - see Nye, 1972. Canu & Bassler (1922) defined Grammascosoecia in the Family Ascosoeciidae, with the type species Grammascosoecia (Ceriopora) dichotoma Goldfuss, 1827 (Note the name in brackets is the original genus, not a subgeneric name). Material from the Maastrichtian of Holland was used in the revision of Goldfuss species: the Reuss reference was not used in the synonymy. This implies that Canu in 1919 was defining a new species Tetrocycloecia dichotoma Canu, 1919.

In 1972, Brood defined a new genus Pseudoceriopora in the family Pseudocerioporidae, with the type species Pseudoceriopora (Ceriopora) dichotoma Goldfuss, 1827. Brood included the following Remarks:

"CANU and BASSLER established a genus Grammascosoecia with Cerio¬≠pora dichotoma GOLDFUSS as genotype. Their description is however, incomplete. The important character according to CANU and BASSLER is the presence of a «median lamella» in the interior of the stems. However, no such lamella has been found in the material investigated by the present writer, nor was it found by VOIGT (1951) in an investigation of one hundred specimens. VOIGT'S opinion that Grammascosoecia dichotoma (CANU and BASSLER) must represent another species than Ceriopora dichotoma GOLDFUSS is fully supported by the present writer. If further studies will show, however, that Grammascosoecia dichotoma (CANU and BASSLER) is conspecific with Ceriopora dichotoma GOLDFUSS, Pseudo¬≠ceriopora must be considered a junior synonym of Grammascosoecia" .

Brood was using "several hundred specimens", from the Santonian and Campanian of Malen and Ifö in Sweden, so it is uncertain that his material was similar to that of Hagenow.

The three genera have been defined using the same available name, apparently without study of the original material, or by defining a neotype. This is a taxonomic mess. These three genera presumably represent quite distinct concepts in the view of the authors, yet we still do not have a modern description for the species named by Hagenow (nor the material misidentified by Reuss). The strict interpretation of the Code of Zoological Nomenclature would make all three genera objective synonyms. It is permissible to define a new species by misidentification, but this should be accompanied by a complete revision using comparative material.

This genus includes the species:

  1. Tetrocycloecia aquitanica
  2. (Canu, 1907) Paleogene Oligocene France WoRMS 1414104
  3. Tetrocycloecia attenuata
  4. (Canu & Bassler, 1920) Paleogene Paleocene Danian USA Arkansas WoRMS 1414105
  5. Tetrocycloecia chilechicoensis
  6. (Brood, 1981) Oligocene-Miocene Chile WoRMS 1414106
  7. Tetrocycloecia crassa
  8. (von Hagenow, 1851) Late Cretaceous Maastrichtian Netherlands WoRMS 1414107
  9. Tetrocycloecia crispata
  10. Voigt, 1962 Late Cretaceous Russia WoRMS 1409284
  11. Tetrocycloecia densa
  12. (Canu & Bassler, 1926) Early Cretaceous Aptian England WoRMS 1414108
  13. Tetrocycloecia dichotoma
  14. Canu, 1919 Neogene Miocene Tortonian Austria WoRMS 1409285
  15. Tetrocycloecia distincta
  16. (Kühn, 1955) Neogene Miocene Burdigalian Austria WoRMS 1414109
  17. Tetrocycloecia flabellaris
  18. (Canu & Bassler, 1929) Recent West Pacific Philippines WoRMS 472558
  19. Tetrocycloecia grandis
  20. (Canu & Bassler, 1920) Paleogene Eocene Priabonian USA Mississippi WoRMS 1414110
  21. Tetrocycloecia helvetica
  22. (Kühn, 1955) Neogene Miocene Burdigalian Austria WoRMS 1414111
  23. Tetrocycloecia lithothamnioides
  24. (Kühn, 1925) Neogene Miocene Burdigalian Austria WoRMS 1414112
  25. Tetrocycloecia magna
  26. (O'Donoghue & O'Donoghue, 1923) Recent Northeast Pacific Canada WoRMS 472556
  27. Tetrocycloecia multiporosa
  28. Canu & Bassler, 1926 Early Cretaceous Aptian England WoRMS 1409286
  29. Tetrocycloecia neozelanica
  30. (Busk, 1879) Recent South Pacific - New Zealand WoRMS 573181
  31. Tetrocycloecia parapelliculata
  32. (Taylor, Schembri & Cook, 1989) Recent South Pacific - New Zealand WoRMS 573182
  33. Tetrocycloecia parvula
  34. (Canu & Bassler, 1929) Recent West Pacific Philippines WoRMS 472557
  35. Tetrocycloecia pelliculata
  36. (Waters, 1879) Recent Northeast Pacific Canada WoRMS 472560
  37. Tetrocycloecia ramosa
  38. (Canu & Bassler, 1929) Recent West Pacific Philippines WoRMS 472559
  39. Tetrocycloecia reticulata
  40. (Canu & Bassler, 1920) Paleogene Eocene Priabonian USA South Carolina WoRMS 1414113
  41. Tetrocycloecia subaudica
  42. (Canu & Bassler, 1922) Late Cretaceous Cenomanian France WoRMS 1414114
  43. Tetrocycloecia suecica
  44. (Brood, 1972) Early Cretaceous Sweden WoRMS 1414115
  45. Tetrocycloecia tamulica
  46. (Stoliczka, 1873) Late Cretaceous Turonian India WoRMS 1414116
  47. Tetrocycloecia tennesseensis
  48. (Canu & Bassler, 1926) Cretaceous Maastrichtian USA Tennessee, N.Carolina WoRMS 1414117
  49. Tetrocycloecia tortilis
  50. (Lonsdale, 1845) Neogene Pliocene Zanclean USA Virginia WoRMS 1414118
  51. Tetrocycloecia transversa
  52. Taylor & McKinney, 2006 Cretaceous Maastrichtian USA Georgia, New Jersey WoRMS 1409287

Tetrocycloecia magna at WoRMS.

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Edited by Phil Bock
Modified on 19/08/2014
Modified on 28/10/2016 (added 19 species)
Modified on 19/4/2017 (added link)
Modified on 26/11/2017 (added T.crassa)
Modified on 30/6/2020 (Added WoRMS links)
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