Parasmittina Osburn, 1952

Type species: Lepralia jeffreysi Norman, 1876

Synonyms Author Type Species
Alismittina Soule & Soule, 1964 Smittia californiensis Robertson, 1908

This genus includes the species:

  1. Parasmittina abrolhosensis
    Ramalho, Taylor. & Moraes, 2018 Recent West Pacific Brazil WoRMS 1299459
  2. Parasmittina aculeata
  3. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west Solomon Is. WoRMS 470477
  4. Parasmittina acuta
  5. (Canu & Bassler, 1929) Recent West Pacific Philippines WoRMS 1035374
  6. Parasmittina alanbanneri
  7. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470430
  8. Parasmittina alaskensis
  9. Osburn, 1952 Recent Alaska WoRMS 470454
  10. Parasmittina alba
  11. Ramalho, Muricy & Taylor, 2011 Recent West Atlantic Brazil WoRMS 573180
  12. Parasmittina aleutensis
  13. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Alaska WoRMS 387446
  14. Parasmittina anderseni
  15. Cheetham & Sandberg, 1964 Holocene USA (Gulf of Mexico) WoRMS 422341
  16. Parasmittina aotea
  17. (Brown, 1952) Recent New Zealand WoRMS 470458
  18. Parasmittina areolata
  19. (Canu & Bassler, 1927) Recent Hawaii, Brazil, Belize, Mauritius(?) WoRMS 470410
  20. Parasmittina atypica
  21. (Powell, 1967) Recent New Zealand WoRMS 722987
  22. Parasmittina auris
  23. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2007 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat  
  24. Parasmittina avicularissima
  25. Gontar, 1982 Recent North Pacific WoRMS 470458
  26. Parasmittina aviculifera
  27. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent California WoRMS 387447
  28. Phylactella aviculifera
    (Homonym)
  29. (d'Hondt, 1986) Recent New Caledonia WoRMS 1035376
  30. Parasmittina aviculoumbonata
  31. Kataoka, 1961 Neogene Pliocene-Pleistocene Japan  
  32. Parasmittina baccula
  33. Hayward & Winston, 2011 Recent Antarctic WoRMS 709373
  34. Parasmittina barbadensis
  35. Winston & Woollacott, 2009 Recent West Atlantic - Barbados WoRMS 534175
  36. Parasmittina betamorphaea
  37. Winston, 2005 Recent West Atlantic Caribbean WoRMS 422342
  38. Parasmittina bimucronata
  39. (Hincks, 1884) Recent Burma WoRMS 470459
  40. Parasmittina breli
  41. d'Hondt & Mascarell, 2010 Recent Marquesas Is. WoRMS 843203
  42. Parasmittina californica
  43. (Robertson, 1908) Recent California WoRMS 470461
  44. Parasmittina californiensis
  45. (Robertson, 1908) Recent USA California WoRMS 851529
  46. Parasmittina cautela
  47. Hayward, 1988 Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470417
  48. Parasmittina cheilodon
  49. (MacGillivray, 1869) Recent Southern Australia WoRMS 470426
  50. Parasmittina chikagawaensis
  51. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Pliocene-Pleistocene Japan  
  52. Parasmittina circinanata
  53. Liu, 2001 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 470465
  54. Parasmittina circularis
  55. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470431
  56. Parasmittina collifera
  57. (Robertson, 1908) Recent California WoRMS 868579
  58. Parasmittina collum
  59. (Canu & Bassler, 1920) Paleogene Eocene Priabonian USA Carolinas  
  60. Parasmittina contraria
  61. Seo, 1992 Recent Korea WoRMS 470446
  62. Parasmittina crosslandi
  63. (Hastings, 1930) Recent
    Neogene
    East Pacific
    Central America
    WoRMS 422343
  64. Parasmittina crosslandi serrata
  65. Madihavan Pillai, 1981 Recent Indian Ocean WoRMS 472721
  66. Parasmittina cryptoavicularia
  67. Baradari, Nasrolahi & Taylor, 2019 Recent Persian Gulf WoRMS 1354164
  68. Parasmittina delicatula
  69. (Busk, 1884) Recent Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia WoRMS 470398
  70. Parasmittina dentigera
  71. Harmer, 1957 Recent Indonesia WoRMS 470415
  72. Parasmittina dependeo
  73. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470474
  74. Parasmittina distincta
    Ramalho, Taylor. & Moraes, 2018 Recent West Pacific Brazil WoRMS 1299458
  75. Parasmittina dolabrata
  76. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Galapagos, E.Pacific WoRMS 470441
  77. Parasmittina dubitata
  78. Hayward, 1980 Recent South Atlantic WoRMS 470425
  79. Parasmittina echinata
  80. Canu & Bassler, 1928 Recent Gulf of Mexico WoRMS 422344
  81. Parasmittina egyptiaca
  82. (Waters, 1909) Recent Egypt WoRMS 470416
  83. Parasmittina emersoni
  84. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470434
  85. Parasmittina ensifera
  86. (Maplestone, 1909) Recent South Pacific - Gilbert Islands WoRMS 1035386
  87. Parasmittina erecta
  88. Gordon & d'Hondt, 1997 Recent Southwest Pacific WoRMS 470449
  89. Parasmittina exasperatrix
  90. d'Hondt, 1986 Recent New Caledonia WoRMS 470443
  91. Parasmittina exiguiuncinata
  92. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470470
  93. Parasmittina fistulata
  94. (Harmer 1957) Recent Indo-West Pacific, western Australia WoRMS 470399
  95. Parasmittina floridana
  96. Winston, 2005 Recent West Atlantic - Caribbean WoRMS 422345
  97. Parasmittina fraseri
  98. Osburn, 1952 Recent Mexico WoRMS 470455
  99. Parasmittina galerita
  100. Ryland & Hayward, 1992 Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470404
  101. Parasmittina geometrica
  102. (Kirkpatrick, 1890) Recent South China Sea WoRMS 1035389
  103. Parasmittina glabra
  104. Gordon & d'Hondt, 1997 Recent Southwest Pacific WoRMS 470447
  105. Parasmittina glomerata
  106. (Thornely, 1912) Recent Indian Ocean WoRMS 220637
  107. Parasmittina gujaratica
  108. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2007 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat WoRMS 470481
  109. Parasmittina hanzawae
  110. Kataoka, 1960 Recent Japan WoRMS 470452
  111. Parasmittina harudiensis
  112. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2007 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat WoRMS 470479
  113. Parasmittina hastingsae
  114. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii, Vanuatu, Indonesia, Australia WoRMS 470400
  115. Parasmittina ilioensis
  116. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470440
  117. Parasmittina inalienata
  118. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470476
  119. Parasmittina indiginella
  120. Winston, 2016 Recent Northwest Atlantic USA Florida WoRMS 868519
  121. Parasmittina japonica
  122. (Ortmann, 1890) Recent Japan WoRMS 1035391
  123. Parasmittina jeffreysi
  124. (Norman, 1876) Recent Arctic WoRMS 111544
  125. Parasmittina johni
  126. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2007 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat WoRMS 470480
  127. Parasmittina kauaiensis
  128. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470438
  129. Parasmittina kirkpatricki
  130. Hayward, 1988 Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470418
  131. Parasmittina labellum
  132. Canu & Bassler, 1928 Recent Gulf of Mexico WoRMS 470444
  133. Parasmittina latiavicularia
  134. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius, GBR WoRMS 470405
  135. Parasmittina lavela
  136. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Colombia WoRMS 387448
  137. Parasmittina leviavicularia
  138. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470436
  139. Parasmittina livingstonei
  140. (Powell, 1967) Recent New Zealand WoRMS 722988
  141. Parasmittina longirostrata
  142. Liu, 2001 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 470463
  143. Parasmittina loxa
  144. (Marcus, 1937) Recent Atlantic Ocean - St Helena WoRMS 1035392
  145. Parasmittina loxoides
  146. Winston, Vieira & Woollacott, 2014 Recent Southwest Atlantic Brazil WoRMS 827638
  147. Parasmittina macginitiei
  148. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Alaska WoRMS 387449
  149. Parasmittina macphersonae
  150. Powell, 1967 Recent Southern Australia WoRMS 470427
  151. Parasmittina margaritata
  152. Hayward, 1988 Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470419
  153. Parasmittina marginata
  154. (Canu & Bassler, 1929) Recent Pacific west Philippines WoRMS 470448
  155. Parasmittina marsupialis
  156. (Busk, 1884) Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470435
  157. Parasmittina masudai
  158. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Miocene-Pliocene Japan  
  159. Parasmittina mauritiana
  160. Hayward, 1988 Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470420
  161. Parasmittina mexicana
  162. Pouyet & Herrera-Anduaga, 1986 Recent Mexico WoRMS 422346
  163. Parasmittina multiaviculata
  164. Souto, Ramalhosa & Canning-Clode, 2016 Recent East Atlantic Madeira WoRMS 888472
  165. Parasmittina munita
  166. (Hincks, 1884) Recent Australia WoRMS 422347
  167. Parasmittina murarmata
  168. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470421
  169. Parasmittina nasuta
  170. (Harmer, 1957) Recent Indo-Pacific Indonesia WoRMS 470412
  171. Parasmittina natalensis
  172. O'Donoghue, 1957 Recent Indian Ocean South Africa WoRMS 470453
  173. Parasmittina nitida
  174. (Verrill, 1875) Recent S. Atlantic WoRMS 422348
  175. Parasmittina novella
  176. Hayward & Cook, 1983 Recent South Africa WoRMS 470429
  177. Parasmittina obstructa
  178. (Waters, 1889) Recent Australia WoRMS 470460
  179. Parasmittina oculinae
  180. Winston, 2016 Recent Northwest Atlantic USA Florida WoRMS 868520
  181. Parasmittina okadai
  182. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Miocene Japan  
  183. Parasmittina onychorrhyncha
  184. Ryland & Hayward, 1992 Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470406
  185. Parasmittina ornata
  186. (Thornely, 1912) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470422
  187. Parasmittina ovilirata
  188. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470471
  189. Parasmittina papulata
  190. (Harmer, 1957) Recent Indonesia WoRMS 470414
  191. Parasmittina paradicei
  192. (Livingstone, 1926) Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470428
  193. Parasmittina parsevaliformis
  194. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470437
  195. Parasmittina parsevalii
  196. (Audouin, 1826) Recent Gulf of Suez WoRMS 111545
  197. Parasmittina parsloeparsloei
  198. Hayward & Parker, 1994 Recent southern Australia WoRMS 470401
  199. Parasmittina parvitatis
  200. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470475
  201. Parasmittina parviuncinata
  202. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470433
  203. Parasmittina pectinata
  204. Hayward & Parker, 1994 Recent southern Australia WoRMS 470402
  205. Parasmittina peristoaviculata
  206. Kataoka, 1961 Neogene Pliocene-Pleistocene Japan  
  207. Parasmittina pinctatae
  208. Liu, 2001 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 470468
  209. Parasmittina plana
  210. Kataoka, 1961 Neogene Pleistocene Japan  
  211. Parasmittina pluriavicularis
  212. Moyano, 1982 Recent Chile WoRMS 470442
  213. Parasmittina projecta
  214. (Okada & Mawatari, 1937) Recent Japan WoRMS 470457
  215. Parasmittina protecta
  216. (Thornely, 1905) Recent West Africa, Indian Ocean WoRMS 220639
  217. Parasmittina proximoproducta
  218. Moyano, 1983 Recent Chile WoRMS 470451
  219. Parasmittina pugetensis
  220. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent NW USA WoRMS 387450
  221. Parasmittina pyriformis
  222. Seo, 2002 Recent Northwest Pacific - Korea WoRMS 387451
  223. Parasmittina raigiformis
  224. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470439
  225. Parasmittina raigii
  226. (Audouin, 1826) Recent Gulf of Suez WoRMS 111546
  227. Parasmittina raigioidea
  228. Liu, 2001 Recent Northwest Pacific - China WoRMS 470467
  229. Parasmittina recidiva
  230. Hayward, 1988 Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470423
  231. Parasmittina regularis
  232. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent California WoRMS 387452
  233. Parasmittina rimula
  234. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470472
  235. Parasmittina rostriformis
  236. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470424
  237. Parasmittina rouvillei
  238. (Calvet, 1902) Recent Mediterranean WoRMS 221563
  239. Parasmittina saccoi
  240. (Canu, 1913) Neogene Miocene Burdigalian France  
  241. Parasmittina santacruzana
  242. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent California WoRMS 387453
  243. Parasmittina serrula
  244. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Pacific, Caribbean WoRMS 470407
  245. Parasmittina serruloides
  246. Harmelin, Bitar & Zibrowius, 2009 Recent Lebanon WoRMS 470483
  247. Parasmittina shibikawaensis
  248. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Pliocene Japan  
  249. Parasmittina simpulata
  250. Winston, Vieira & Woollacott, 2014 Recent Southwest Atlantic Brazil WoRMS 827639
  251. Parasmittina solenosmilioides
  252. Hayward & Parker, 1994 Recent Australia, Indo-west Pacific WoRMS 470403
  253. Parasmittina soulesi
  254. Scholz & Cusi, 1993 Recent Indo-Pacific WoRMS 932838
  255. Parasmittina spathulata
  256. (Smitt, 1873) Recent Hawai’i WoRMS 422349
  257. Parasmittina spiculata
  258. Gluhak, Lewis & Popijak, 2007 Recent Northwest Pacific - Taiwan WoRMS 472903
  259. Parasmittina spondylicola
  260. Harmelin, Bitar & Zibrowius, 2009 Recent Lebanon WoRMS 470484
  261. Parasmittina subtubulata
  262. (Harmer, 1957) Recent Indonesia WoRMS 470413
  263. Parasmittina talismani
  264. (Calvet, 1907) Recent Cape Verde WoRMS 470482
  265. Parasmittina tatianae
  266. Denisenko, 2015 Recent Arctic Chukotsk Sea WoRMS 884395
  267. Parasmittina telum
  268. (Canu & Bassler, 1920) Paleogene Oligocene Rupelian USA, Europe  
  269. Parasmittina triangularis
  270. (Mawatari, 1952) Recent Japan WoRMS 470456
  271. Parasmittina trianguliforma
  272. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Mexico WoRMS 470462
  273. Parasmittina trispinosa
  274. (Johnston, 1838) Recent Europe WoRMS 111547
  275. Parasmittina trispinosa aomoriensis
  276. Kataoka, 1957 Neogene Pliocene Japan  
  277. Parasmittina trispinosa granosa
  278. (Canu & Bassler, 1929) Recent Pacific west Philippines WoRMS 1035398
  279. Parasmittina trispinosa macroavicularia
  280. (Androsova, 1958) Recent North Pacific - Sakhalin WoRMS 472718
  281. Parasmittina trispinosa nanshaensis
  282. Lu, 1991 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 472720
  283. Parasmittina tropica
  284. (Waters, 1909) Recent Mauritius, W.Africa, Indonesia, Australia, Mediterranean WoRMS 111548
  285. Parasmittina trunculata
  286. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470473
  287. Parasmittina tubula
  288. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470409
  289. Parasmittina tubulata
  290. Osburn, 1952 Recent California, Mexico WoRMS 470445
  291. Parasmittina turbula
  292. Ryland & Hayward, 1992 Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470408
  293. Parasmittina uncinata
  294. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470432
  295. Parasmittina vacuramosa
  296. Lu, Nie & Zhong in Lu, 1991 Recent Indo-Pacific including Australia WoRMS 470469
  297. Parasmittina variabilis
  298. Liu, 2001 Recent Northwest Pacific - China WoRMS 470466
  299. Parasmittina winstonae
  300. Liu, 2001 Recent Northwest Pacific - China WoRMS 470464
Parasmittina alanbanneri Parasmittina areolata Parasmittina avicularissima Parasmittina circularis
Parasmittina alanbanneri
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina areolata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina avicularissima
(Thanks to Matt Dick)
Parasmittina circularis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina crosslandi Parasmittina delicatula Parasmittina dolabrata Parasmittina emersoni
Parasmittina crosslandi Parasmittina delicatula Parasmittina dolabrata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina emersoni
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina hastingsae Parasmittina ilioensis Parasmittina kauaiensis Parasmittina leviavicularia
Parasmittina hastingsae
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina ilioensis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina kauaiensis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina leviavicularia
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina marsupialis Parasmittina parsevaliformis Parasmittina parsloeparsloei Parasmittina parviuncinata
Parasmittina marsupialis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina parsevaliformis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina parsloeparsloei -
A colour photograph by
Karen Gowlett-Holmes
is available.
Parasmittina parviuncinata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina raigiformis Parasmittina serrula Parasmittina soulesi Parasmittina trianguliforma Parasmittina uncinata
Parasmittina raigiformis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina serrula
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina soulesi
(Thanks to Matt Dick)
Parasmittina trianguliforma
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina uncinata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)

This information is based upon various sources, but little personal knowledge. I am indebted to the late Alan Horowitz for his compilation, and to Dr. J. Pachut.
I would be grateful for corrections to, or critical reviews of this information. This is not a 'final' version (an impossible ideal), but a working document.

Parasmittina page at NMITA

Parasmittina trispinosa at Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland.

Parasmittina jeffreysi at Atlas of Arctic Bryozoa - Piotr Kuklinski.
Parasmittina trispinosa at Atlas of Arctic Bryozoa - Piotr Kuklinski.


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Edited by Phil Bock
Modified on 3/1/2017
Modified on 14/9/2017 (3 species added)
Modified on 29/9/2018 (2 species added)
Modified on 30/6/2019 (Added H.cryptoavicularia)
This URL is http://bryozoa.net/cheilostomata/smittinidae/parasmittina.html