Parasmittina Osburn, 1952

Type species: Lepralia jeffreysi Norman, 1876

Synonyms Author Type Species
Alismittina Soule & Soule, 1964 Smittia californiensis Robertson, 1908

This genus includes the species:

  1. Parasmittina abrolhosensis
  2. Ramalho, Taylor. & Moraes, 2018 Recent West Pacific Brazil WoRMS 1299459
  3. Parasmittina acondylata
  4. Dick, Ngai & Doan, 2020 Recent South China Sea Vietnam WoRMS 1424310
  5. Parasmittina aculeata
  6. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west Solomon Is. WoRMS 470477
  7. Parasmittina acuta
  8. (Canu & Bassler, 1929) Recent West Pacific Philippines WoRMS 1035374
  9. Parasmittina alanbanneri
  10. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470430
  11. Parasmittina alaskensis
  12. Osburn, 1952 Recent Alaska WoRMS 470454
  13. Parasmittina alba
  14. Ramalho, Muricy & Taylor, 2011 Recent West Atlantic Brazil WoRMS 573180
  15. Parasmittina aleutensis
  16. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Alaska WoRMS 387446
  17. Parasmittina anderseni
  18. Cheetham & Sandberg, 1964 Holocene USA (Gulf of Mexico) WoRMS 422341
  19. Parasmittina aotea
  20. (Brown, 1952) Recent New Zealand WoRMS 470458
  21. Parasmittina areolata
  22. (Canu & Bassler, 1927) Recent Hawaii, Brazil, Belize, Mauritius(?) WoRMS 470410
  23. Parasmittina atypica
  24. (Powell, 1967) Recent New Zealand WoRMS 722987
  25. Parasmittina auris
  26. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2005 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat WoRMS 470478
  27. Parasmittina avicularissima
  28. Gontar, 1982 Recent North Pacific WoRMS 470458
  29. Parasmittina aviculifera
  30. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent California WoRMS 387447
  31. Phylactella aviculifera
    (Homonym)
  32. (d'Hondt, 1986) Recent New Caledonia WoRMS 1035376
  33. Parasmittina aviculoumbonata
  34. Kataoka, 1961 Neogene Pliocene-Pleistocene Japan WoRMS 1406219
  35. Parasmittina baccula
  36. Hayward & Winston, 2011 Recent Antarctic WoRMS 709373
  37. Parasmittina barbadensis
  38. Winston & Woollacott, 2009 Recent West Atlantic - Barbados WoRMS 534175
  39. Parasmittina betamorphaea
  40. Winston, 2005 Recent West Atlantic Caribbean WoRMS 422342
  41. Parasmittina bimucronata
  42. (Hincks, 1884) Recent Burma WoRMS 470459
  43. Parasmittina breli
  44. d'Hondt & Mascarell, 2010 Recent Marquesas Is. WoRMS 843203
  45. Parasmittina californica
  46. (Robertson, 1908) Recent California WoRMS 470461
  47. Parasmittina californiensis
  48. (Robertson, 1908) Recent USA California WoRMS 851529
  49. Parasmittina cheilodon
  50. (MacGillivray, 1869) Recent Southern Australia WoRMS 470426
  51. Parasmittina chikagawaensis
  52. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Pliocene-Pleistocene Japan WoRMS 1406220
  53. Parasmittina circinanata
  54. Liu, 2001 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 470465
  55. Parasmittina circularis
  56. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470431
  57. Parasmittina collifera
  58. (Robertson, 1908) Recent California WoRMS 868579
  59. Parasmittina collum
  60. (Canu & Bassler, 1920) Paleogene Eocene Priabonian USA Carolinas WoRMS 1412720
  61. Parasmittina contraria
  62. Seo, 1992 Recent Korea WoRMS 470446
  63. Parasmittina crosslandi
  64. (Hastings, 1930) Recent
    Neogene
    East Pacific
    Central America
    WoRMS 422343
  65. Parasmittina crosslandi serrata
  66. Madihavan Pillai, 1981 Recent Indian Ocean WoRMS 472721
  67. Parasmittina cryptoavicularia
  68. Baradari, Nasrolahi & Taylor, 2019 Recent Persian Gulf WoRMS 1354164
  69. Parasmittina delicatula
  70. (Busk, 1884) Recent Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia WoRMS 470398
  71. Parasmittina dentigera
  72. Harmer, 1957 Recent Indonesia WoRMS 470415
  73. Parasmittina dependeo
  74. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470474
  75. Parasmittina distincta
    Ramalho, Taylor. & Moraes, 2018 Recent West Pacific Brazil WoRMS 1299458
  76. Parasmittina dolabrata
  77. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Galapagos, E.Pacific WoRMS 470441
  78. Parasmittina dubitata
  79. Hayward, 1980 Recent South Atlantic WoRMS 470425
  80. Parasmittina echinata
  81. Canu & Bassler, 1928 Recent Gulf of Mexico WoRMS 422344
  82. Parasmittina egyptiaca
  83. (Waters, 1909) Recent Egypt WoRMS 470416
  84. Parasmittina emersoni
  85. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470434
  86. Parasmittina ensifera
  87. (Maplestone, 1909) Recent South Pacific - Gilbert Islands WoRMS 1035386
  88. Parasmittina erecta
  89. Gordon & d'Hondt, 1997 Recent Southwest Pacific WoRMS 470449
  90. Parasmittina exasperatrix
  91. d'Hondt, 1986 Recent New Caledonia WoRMS 470443
  92. Parasmittina exiguiuncinata
  93. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470470
  94. Parasmittina fistulata
  95. (Harmer 1957) Recent Indo-West Pacific, western Australia WoRMS 470399
  96. Parasmittina floridana
  97. Winston, 2005 Recent West Atlantic - Caribbean WoRMS 422345
  98. Parasmittina fraseri
  99. Osburn, 1952 Recent Mexico WoRMS 470455
  100. Parasmittina galerita
  101. Ryland & Hayward, 1992 Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470404
  102. Parasmittina geometrica
  103. (Kirkpatrick, 1890) Recent South China Sea WoRMS 1035389
  104. Parasmittina glabra
  105. Gordon & d'Hondt, 1997 Recent Southwest Pacific WoRMS 470447
  106. Parasmittina glomerata
  107. (Thornely, 1912) Recent Indian Ocean WoRMS 220637
  108. Parasmittina gujaratica
  109. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2005 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat WoRMS 470481
  110. Parasmittina hanzawae
  111. Kataoka, 1960 Recent Japan WoRMS 470452
  112. Parasmittina harudiensis
  113. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2005 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat WoRMS 470479
  114. Parasmittina hastingsae
  115. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii, Vanuatu, Indonesia, Australia WoRMS 470400
  116. Parasmittina ilioensis
  117. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470440
  118. Parasmittina inalienata
  119. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470476
  120. Parasmittina indiginella
  121. Winston, 2016 Recent Northwest Atlantic USA Florida WoRMS 868519
  122. Parasmittina japonica
  123. (Ortmann, 1890) Recent Japan WoRMS 1035391
  124. Parasmittina jeffreysi
  125. (Norman, 1876) Recent Arctic WoRMS 111544
  126. Parasmittina johni
  127. Guha & Gopikrishna, 2005 Paleogene Eocene Lutetian India Gujarat WoRMS 470480
  128. Parasmittina kauaiensis
  129. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470438
  130. Parasmittina labellum
  131. Canu & Bassler, 1928 Recent Gulf of Mexico WoRMS 470444
  132. Parasmittina latiavicularia
  133. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius, GBR WoRMS 470405
  134. Parasmittina lavela
  135. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Colombia WoRMS 387448
  136. Parasmittina leviavicularia
  137. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470436
  138. Parasmittina livingstonei
  139. (Powell, 1967) Recent New Zealand WoRMS 722988
  140. Parasmittina longirostrata
  141. Liu, 2001 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 470463
  142. Parasmittina loxa
  143. (Marcus, 1937) Recent Atlantic Ocean - St Helena WoRMS 1035392
  144. Parasmittina loxoides
  145. Winston, Vieira & Woollacott, 2014 Recent Southwest Atlantic Brazil WoRMS 827638
  146. Parasmittina macginitiei
  147. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Alaska WoRMS 387449
  148. Parasmittina macphersonae
  149. Powell, 1967 Recent Southern Australia WoRMS 470427
  150. Parasmittina margaritata
  151. Hayward, 1988 Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470419
  152. Parasmittina marsupialis
  153. (Busk, 1884) Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470435
  154. Parasmittina masudai
  155. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Miocene-Pliocene Japan WoRMS 1406221
  156. Parasmittina mauritiana
  157. Hayward, 1988 Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470420
  158. Parasmittina mexicana
  159. Pouyet & Herrera-Anduaga, 1986 Recent Mexico WoRMS 422346
  160. Parasmittina multiaviculata
  161. Souto, Ramalhosa & Canning-Clode, 2016 Recent East Atlantic Madeira WoRMS 888472
  162. Parasmittina munita
  163. (Hincks, 1884) Recent Australia WoRMS 422347
  164. Parasmittina murarmata
  165. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470421
  166. Parasmittina nasuta
  167. (Harmer, 1957) Recent Indo-Pacific Indonesia WoRMS 470412
  168. Parasmittina natalensis
  169. O'Donoghue, 1957 Recent Indian Ocean South Africa WoRMS 470453
  170. Parasmittina nitida
  171. (Verrill, 1875) Recent S. Atlantic WoRMS 422348
  172. Parasmittina novella
  173. Hayward & Cook, 1983 Recent South Africa WoRMS 470429
  174. Parasmittina obstructa
  175. (Waters, 1889) Recent Australia WoRMS 470460
  176. Parasmittina oculinae
  177. Winston, 2016 Recent Northwest Atlantic USA Florida WoRMS 868520
  178. Parasmittina okadai
  179. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Miocene Japan WoRMS 1406222
  180. Parasmittina onychorrhyncha
  181. Ryland & Hayward, 1992 Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470406
  182. Parasmittina ornata
  183. (Thornely, 1912) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470422
  184. Parasmittina ovilirata
  185. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470471
  186. Parasmittina papulata
  187. (Harmer, 1957) Recent Indonesia WoRMS 470414
  188. Parasmittina paradicei
  189. (Livingstone, 1926) Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470428
  190. Parasmittina parsevaliformis
  191. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470437
  192. Parasmittina parsevalii
  193. (Audouin, 1826) Recent Gulf of Suez WoRMS 111545
  194. Parasmittina parsloeparsloei
  195. Hayward & Parker, 1994 Recent southern Australia WoRMS 470401
  196. Parasmittina parvitatis
  197. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470475
  198. Parasmittina parviuncinata
  199. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470433
  200. Parasmittina pectinata
  201. Hayward & Parker, 1994 Recent southern Australia WoRMS 470402
  202. Parasmittina peristoaviculata
  203. Kataoka, 1961 Neogene Pliocene-Pleistocene Japan WoRMS 1406223
  204. Parasmittina pinctatae
  205. Liu, 2001 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 470468
  206. Parasmittina plana
  207. Kataoka, 1961 Neogene Pleistocene Japan WoRMS 1406224
  208. Parasmittina projecta
  209. (Okada & Mawatari, 1937) Recent Japan WoRMS 470457
  210. Parasmittina protecta
  211. (Thornely, 1905) Recent West Africa, Indian Ocean WoRMS 220639
  212. Parasmittina proximoproducta
  213. Moyano, 1983 Recent Chile WoRMS 470451
  214. Parasmittina pugetensis
  215. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent NW USA WoRMS 387450
  216. Parasmittina pyriformis
  217. Seo, 2002 Recent Northwest Pacific - Korea WoRMS 387451
  218. Parasmittina raigiformis
  219. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470439
  220. Parasmittina raigii
  221. (Audouin, 1826) Recent Gulf of Suez WoRMS 111546
  222. Parasmittina raigioidea
  223. Liu, 2001 Recent Northwest Pacific - China WoRMS 470467
  224. Parasmittina recidiva
  225. Hayward, 1988 Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470423
  226. Parasmittina regularis
  227. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent California WoRMS 387452
  228. Parasmittina rimula
  229. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470472
  230. Parasmittina rostriformis
  231. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470424
  232. Parasmittina rouvillei
  233. (Calvet, 1902) Recent Mediterranean WoRMS 221563
  234. Parasmittina saccoi
  235. (Canu, 1913) Neogene Miocene Burdigalian France WoRMS 1412721
  236. Parasmittina santacruzana
  237. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent California WoRMS 387453
  238. Parasmittina serrula
  239. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Pacific, Caribbean WoRMS 470407
  240. Parasmittina serruloides
  241. Harmelin, Bitar & Zibrowius, 2009 Recent Lebanon WoRMS 470483
  242. Parasmittina shibikawaensis
  243. Hayami, 1975 Neogene Pliocene Japan WoRMS 1406225
  244. Parasmittina simpulata
  245. Winston, Vieira & Woollacott, 2014 Recent Southwest Atlantic Brazil WoRMS 827639
  246. Parasmittina solenosmilioides
  247. Hayward & Parker, 1994 Recent Australia, Indo-west Pacific WoRMS 470403
  248. Parasmittina soulesi
  249. Scholz & Cusi, 1993 Recent Indo-Pacific WoRMS 932838
  250. Parasmittina spathulata
  251. (Smitt, 1873) Recent Hawai’i WoRMS 422349
  252. Parasmittina spiculata
  253. Gluhak, Lewis & Popijak, 2007 Recent Northwest Pacific - Taiwan WoRMS 472903
  254. Parasmittina spondylicola
  255. Harmelin, Bitar & Zibrowius, 2009 Recent Lebanon WoRMS 470484
  256. Parasmittina subtubulata
  257. (Harmer, 1957) Recent Indonesia WoRMS 470413
  258. Parasmittina talismani
  259. (Calvet, 1907) Recent Cape Verde WoRMS 470482
  260. Parasmittina tatianae
  261. Denisenko, 2015 Recent Arctic Chukotsk Sea WoRMS 884395
  262. Parasmittina telum
  263. (Canu & Bassler, 1920) Paleogene Oligocene Rupelian USA, Europe WoRMS 1412722
  264. Parasmittina triangularis
  265. (Mawatari, 1952) Recent Japan WoRMS 470456
  266. Parasmittina trianguliforma
  267. Soule & Soule, 2002 Recent Mexico WoRMS 470462
  268. Parasmittina trispinosa
  269. (Johnston, 1838) Recent Europe WoRMS 111547
  270. Parasmittina trispinosa aomoriensis
  271. Kataoka, 1957 Neogene Pliocene Japan WoRMS 1414956
  272. Parasmittina trispinosa granosa
  273. (Canu & Bassler, 1929) Recent Pacific west Philippines WoRMS 1035398
  274. Parasmittina trispinosa macroavicularia
  275. (Androsova, 1958) Recent North Pacific - Sakhalin WoRMS 472718
  276. Parasmittina trispinosa nanshaensis
  277. Lu, 1991 Recent west North Pacific WoRMS 472720
  278. Parasmittina tropica
  279. (Waters, 1909) Recent Mauritius, W.Africa, Indonesia, Australia, Mediterranean WoRMS 111548
  280. Parasmittina trunculata
  281. Tilbrook, 2006 Recent Pacific west - Solomon Is. WoRMS 470473
  282. Parasmittina tubula
  283. (Kirkpatrick, 1888) Recent Mauritius WoRMS 470409
  284. Parasmittina tubulata
  285. Osburn, 1952 Recent California, Mexico WoRMS 470445
  286. Parasmittina turbula
  287. Ryland & Hayward, 1992 Recent Great Barrier Reef WoRMS 470408
  288. Parasmittina uncinata
  289. Soule & Soule, 1973 Recent Hawaii WoRMS 470432
  290. Parasmittina vacuramosa
  291. Lu, Nie & Zhong in Lu, 1991 Recent Indo-Pacific including Australia WoRMS 470469
  292. Parasmittina variabilis
  293. Liu, 2001 Recent Northwest Pacific - China WoRMS 470466
  294. Parasmittina winstonae
  295. Liu, 2001 Recent Northwest Pacific - China WoRMS 470464
Parasmittina alanbanneri Parasmittina areolata Parasmittina avicularissima Parasmittina circularis
Parasmittina alanbanneri
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina areolata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina avicularissima
(Thanks to Matt Dick)
Parasmittina circularis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina crosslandi Parasmittina delicatula Parasmittina dolabrata Parasmittina emersoni
Parasmittina crosslandi Parasmittina delicatula Parasmittina dolabrata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina emersoni
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina hastingsae Parasmittina ilioensis Parasmittina kauaiensis Parasmittina leviavicularia
Parasmittina hastingsae
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina ilioensis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina kauaiensis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina leviavicularia
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina marsupialis Parasmittina parsevaliformis Parasmittina parsloeparsloei Parasmittina parviuncinata
Parasmittina marsupialis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina parsevaliformis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina parsloeparsloei -
A colour photograph by
Karen Gowlett-Holmes
is available.
Parasmittina parviuncinata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina raigiformis Parasmittina serrula Parasmittina soulesi Parasmittina trianguliforma Parasmittina uncinata
Parasmittina raigiformis
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina serrula
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina soulesi
(Thanks to Matt Dick)
Parasmittina trianguliforma
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)
Parasmittina uncinata
(Thanks to Dr D. Soule)

This information is based upon various sources, but little personal knowledge. I am indebted to the late Alan Horowitz for his compilation, and to Dr. J. Pachut.
I would be grateful for corrections to, or critical reviews of this information. This is not a 'final' version (an impossible ideal), but a working document.

Parasmittina page at NMITA

Parasmittina trispinosa at Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland.

Parasmittina jeffreysi at Atlas of Arctic Bryozoa - Piotr Kuklinski.
Parasmittina trispinosa at Atlas of Arctic Bryozoa - Piotr Kuklinski.


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Edited by Phil Bock
Modified on 3/1/2017
Modified on 14/9/2017 (3 species added)
Modified on 29/9/2018 (2 species added)
Modified on 30/6/2019 (Added P.cryptoavicularia)
Modified on 8/3/2020 (Added P.acondylata)
Modified on 14/6/2020 (Added WoRMS links)
Modified on 19/8/2020 (Moved P.cautela, P.marginata to Smittoidea)
This URL is http://bryozoa.net/cheilostomata/smittinidae/parasmittina.html